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Adiabene (mod. Halab), district of the two Zab rivers in north Mesopotamia. Possibly a Seleucid hyparchy, it became a vassal kingdom, later a satrapy, of Parthia, and was constantly involved in her internal disputes and her wars with Rome. One of the dynasties of Adiabene embraced Judaism (Joseph. AJ 20. 17–37). Trajan's army overran Adiabene in ce 116 and Caracalla's in 216, but neither campaign had more than a momentary effect on the status or allegiance of the country. It was absorbed into the Sasanid empire at the time of the final collapse of Parthia.

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