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Aerosols and Climate  

Bjørn H. Samset

Among the factors that affect the climate, few are as diverse and challenging to understand as aerosols. Minute particles suspended in the atmosphere, aerosols are emitted through a wide ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over Southern Africa During Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Climate Change and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Pierre Friedlingstein

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Climate and carbon cycle are tightly coupled on many time scales, from the interannual to the multimillennial. Observation always shows a positive feedback between climate and the carbon ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Climate Dynamics of ENSO Modoki Phenomena  

Swadhin Behera and Toshio Yamagata

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The El Niño Modoki/La Niña Modoki (ENSO Modoki) is a newly acknowledged face of ocean-atmosphere coupled variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The oceanic and atmospheric conditions ... More

Climate of Southern Africa  

C.J.C. Reason

Southern Africa extends from the equator to about 34°S and is essentially a narrow, peninsular land mass bordered to its south, west, and east by oceans. Its termination in the mid-ocean ... More

Clustering Techniques in Climate Analysis  

David M. Straus

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Desertification and Re-Greening of the Sahel  

Rasmus Fensholt, Cheikh Mbow, Martin Brandt, and Kjeld Rasmussen

In the past 50 years, human activities and climatic variability have caused major environmental changes in the semi-arid Sahelian zone and desertification/degradation of arable lands is of ... More

Downscaling Climate Information  

Rasmus Benestad

What are the local consequences of a global climate change? This question is important for proper handling of risks associated with weather and climate. It also tacitly assumes that there ... More

Dynamics of the Indian Summer Monsoon Climate  

B.N. Goswami and Soumi Chakravorty

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Lifeline for about one-sixth of the world’s population in the subcontinent, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is an integral part of the annual cycle of the winds (reversal of winds with ... More

Ecohydrological Concepts of Water-Vegetation Interaction in the Drylands of Africa  

A. Johannes Dolman, Luis U. Vilasa-Abad, and Thomas A. J. Janssen

Drylands cover around 40% of the land surface on Earth and are inhabited by more than 2 billion people, who are directly dependent on these lands. Drylands are characterized by a highly ... More

Evolving Paradigms of Climatic Processes and Atmospheric Circulation Affecting Africa  

Sharon E. Nicholson

Classic paradigms describing meteorological phenomena and climate have changed dramatically over the last half-century. This is particularly true for the continent of Africa. Our ... More

Impact of Land–Atmosphere Interactions on Sahel Climate  

Yongkang Xue

The Sahel of Africa has been identified as having the strongest land–atmosphere (L/A) interactions on Earth. The Sahelian L/A interaction studies started in the late 1970s. However, due to ... More

The Indian Ocean Dipole  

Saji N. Hameed

Discovered at the very end of the 20th century, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a mode of natural climate variability that arises out of coupled ocean–atmosphere interaction in the Indian ... More

Interannual Variability of the Indian Monsoon and Its Link to ENSO  

Fred Kucharski and Muhammad Adnan Abid

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The interannual variability of Indian summer monsoon is probably one of the most intensively studied phenomena in the research area of climate variability. This is because even relatively ... More

Intraseasonal Modulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Bin Wang

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The strongest Indian summer monsoon (ISM) on the planet features prolonged clustered spells of wet and dry conditions often lasting for two to three weeks, known as active and break ... More

Land–Climate Interaction Over the Tibetan Plateau  

Yongkang Xue, Yaoming Ma, and Qian Li

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the largest and highest plateau on Earth. Due to its elevation, it receives much more downward shortwave radiation than other areas, which results in very ... More

Mineral Dust Generation across Northern Africa and Its Impacts  

Peter Knippertz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Mineral dust is the most important natural aerosol type by mass, with northern Africa the most prominent source region worldwide. Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by strong ... More

North Atlantic Oscillation  

Edward Hanna and Thomas E. Cropper

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Many variations in the weather in the European and North Atlantic regions are linked with changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO is measured using a south-minus-north ... More

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