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Aerosols and Climate  

Bjørn H. Samset

Among the factors that affect the climate, few are as diverse and challenging to understand as aerosols. Minute particles suspended in the atmosphere, aerosols are emitted through a wide ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Climate and Simulation  

Gabriele Gramelsberger

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Subject:
Modeling
Climate and simulation have become interwoven concepts during the past decades because, on the one hand, climate scientists shouldn’t experiment with real climate and, on the other hand, ... More

Climate Change and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Pierre Friedlingstein

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Climate and carbon cycle are tightly coupled on many time scales, from the interannual to the multimillennial. Observation always shows a positive feedback between climate and the carbon ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Constructing Records of Storminess  

Frauke Feser

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Storms are characterized by high wind speeds; often large precipitation amounts in the form of rain, freezing rain, or snow; and thunder and lightning (for thunderstorms). Many different ... More

Forecasting Severe Convective Storms  

Stephen Corfidi

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Forecasting severe convective weather remains one of the most challenging tasks facing operational meteorology today, especially in the mid-latitudes, where severe convective storms occur ... More

Formation and Development of Convective Storms  

R. J. Trapp

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Cumulus clouds are pervasive on earth, and play important roles in the transfer of energy through the atmosphere. Under certain conditions, shallow, nonprecipitating cumuli may grow ... More

History of Typhoon Science  

Aitor Anduaga

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. A ... More

Impact of Land–Atmosphere Interactions on Sahel Climate  

Yongkang Xue

The Sahel of Africa has been identified as having the strongest land–atmosphere (L/A) interactions on Earth. The Sahelian L/A interaction studies started in the late 1970s. However, due to ... More

Predictability of Decadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variations  

Florian Sévellec and Bablu Sinha

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a large, basin-scale circulation located in the Atlantic Ocean that transports climatically important quantities of heat ... More

Regional Climate Modeling and Air-Sea Coupling  

Corinna Schrum

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Modeling
Regional models were originally developed to serve weather forecasting and regional process studies. Typical simulations encompass time periods in the order of days or weeks. Thereafter ... More

Uncertainty Quantification in Multi-Model Ensembles  

Benjamin Mark Sanderson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Long-term planning for many sectors of society—including infrastructure, human health, agriculture, food security, water supply, insurance, conflict, and migration—requires an assessment ... More

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