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Adaptation to Current and Future Climate in Pastoral Communities Across Africa  

Edna Wangui

Pastoralists around the world are exposed to climate change and increasing climate variability. Various downscaled regional climate models in Africa support community reports of rising ... More

Changes in African Glaciers since the 19th Century  

Stefan Hastenrath

Online publication date:
May 2017
In equatorial East Africa, glaciers still exist on Mount Kenya, Kilimanjaro, and Ruwenzori. The decreasing ice extent has been documented by field reports since the end of the 19th century ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over Southern Africa During Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over West Africa During Recent Centuries  

Stefan Norrgård

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Water, not temperature, governs life in West Africa, and the region is both temporally and spatially greatly affected by rainfall variability. Recent rainfall anomalies, for example, have ... More

Climate and Health across Africa  

Benjamin F. Zaitchik

Humans have understood the importance of climate to human health since ancient times. In some cases, the connections appear to be obvious: a flood can cause drownings, a drought can lead ... More

Climate Change Scenarios and African Climate Change  

Kerry H. Cook

Accurate projections of climate change under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels are needed to evaluate the environmental cost of anthropogenic emissions, and to guide mitigation ... More

Climate of Eastern Africa  

Pierre Camberlin

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Eastern Africa, classically presented as a major dry climate anomaly region in the otherwise wet equatorial belt, is a transition zone between the monsoon domains of West Africa and the ... More

Climate of Southern Africa  

C.J.C. Reason

Southern Africa extends from the equator to about 34°S and is essentially a narrow, peninsular land mass bordered to its south, west, and east by oceans. Its termination in the mid-ocean ... More

Climate of the Mediterranean Region  

Ricardo García-Herrera and David Barriopedro

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea surrounded by Europe to the north, Asia to the east, and Africa to the south. It covers an area of approximately 2.5 million km2, between 30–46 °N ... More

Climate of the Sahel and West Africa  

Sharon E. Nicholson

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This article provides an in-depth look at all aspects of the climate of the Sahel, including the pervasive dust in the Sahelian atmosphere. Emphasis is on two aspects: West African monsoon ... More

Climate of Western and Central Equatorial Africa  

Amin Dezfuli

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Western and Central Equatorial Africa (WCEA), home to the Congo rainforests, is the green heart of the otherwise dry continent of Africa. Despite its crucial role in the Earth system, ... More

Climatic Changes and Cultural Responses During the African Humid Period Recorded in Multi-Proxy Data  

David McGee and Peter B. deMenocal

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The expansion and intensification of summer monsoon precipitation in North and East Africa during the African Humid Period (AHP; c. 15,000–5,000 years before present) is recorded by a wide ... More

Desertification and Re-Greening of the Sahel  

Rasmus Fensholt, Cheikh Mbow, Martin Brandt, and Kjeld Rasmussen

In the past 50 years, human activities and climatic variability have caused major environmental changes in the semi-arid Sahelian zone and desertification/degradation of arable lands is of ... More

Ecohydrological Concepts of Water-Vegetation Interaction in the Drylands of Africa  

A. Johannes Dolman, Luis U. Vilasa-Abad, and Thomas A. J. Janssen

Drylands cover around 40% of the land surface on Earth and are inhabited by more than 2 billion people, who are directly dependent on these lands. Drylands are characterized by a highly ... More

Evolving Paradigms of Climatic Processes and Atmospheric Circulation Affecting Africa  

Sharon E. Nicholson

Classic paradigms describing meteorological phenomena and climate have changed dramatically over the last half-century. This is particularly true for the continent of Africa. Our ... More

The Great Green Wall in the Sahel  

Cheikh Mbow

For several decades, the Sahelian countries have been facing continuing rainfall shortages, which, coupled with anthropogenic factors, have severely disrupted the great ecological balance, ... More

Impact of Land–Atmosphere Interactions on Sahel Climate  

Yongkang Xue

The Sahel of Africa has been identified as having the strongest land–atmosphere (L/A) interactions on Earth. The Sahelian L/A interaction studies started in the late 1970s. However, due to ... More

The Late Pleistocene-Holocene African Humid Period as Evident in Lakes  

Jonathan Holmes and Philipp Hoelzmann

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
From the end of the last glacial stage until the mid-Holocene, large areas of arid and semi-arid North Africa were much wetter than present, during the interval that is known as the ... More

Mineral Dust Generation across Northern Africa and Its Impacts  

Peter Knippertz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Mineral dust is the most important natural aerosol type by mass, with northern Africa the most prominent source region worldwide. Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by strong ... More

Quaternary Climate Variation in West Africa  

Timothy M. Shanahan

West Africa is among the most populated regions of the world, and it is predicted to continue to have one of the fastest growing populations in the first half of the 21st century. More ... More

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