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Journalism’s Social Contract  

Helle Sjøvaag

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Journalism’s “social contract” refers to journalism’s role in democracy, primarily its obligations to inform the public and scrutinize government. The notion of a contract, however, ... More

Journalistic Writing and Style  

Maarit Jaakkola

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The core of the journalistic style is the newswriting style. Writing news leans upon the objectivity paradigm that has triggered wide academic debate about the biases in defining ... More

Lifestyle Journalism  

Unni From

Lifestyle journalism is a significant and very substantial field of journalism. Unlike other fields of journalism, however, it has not been the focus of much scholarly debate. Providing ... More

Literary Journalism  

Richard Lance Keeble

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
“Literary journalism” is a highly contested term, its essential elements being a constant source of debate. A range of alternative concepts are promoted: the “New Journalism,” “literary ... More

Local and Hyperlocal Journalism  

Kristy Hess and Lisa Waller

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
There are more local news outlets operating around the world at any given moment than larger-scale metropolitan newsrooms, and yet it is the latter that have dominated journalism ... More

Mobile Journalism and MoJos  

Oscar Westlund and Stephen Quinn

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Journalism and news are so much a part of our lives that most societies take them for granted. To access the news, people have traditionally had to pay for newspapers or acquire television ... More

News Audiences and News Habits  

Jannie Møller Hartley

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The focus of news-audience research has shifted from investigating news audiences of single platforms—such as newspapers, television, or radio news—to audiences in an inherently ... More

News Sources and Journalist/Source Interaction  

Caroline Fisher

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The relationship between journalists and their sources is central to journalism practice. It is a relationship based on a power struggle over the presentation of information to the public. ... More

News Values and Newsworthiness  

Helen Caple

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
How events become news has always been a fundamental question for both journalism practitioners and scholars. For journalism practitioners, news judgments are wrapped up in the moral ... More

Online Comments and Journalism  

J. David Wolfgang

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Shortly after its emergence as a tool for participatory journalism, online commenting became a popular format for audience public discourse and a subject of controversy for professional ... More

Paywalls and Payment Systems  

Merja Myllylahti

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Funding of journalism has become a critical part of journalism and digital journalism studies because no single business model has emerged to solve revenue problems for print and digital ... More

Peace Journalism  

Jake Lynch

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Peace Journalism is a set of distinctions in the representation of conflicts. Put forward originally by Johan Galtung, the Peace Journalism model has acted as an organizing principle for ... More

Policy Issues Surrounding Journalism  

Philip M. Napoli and Sarah Stonbely

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The role of government policy in journalism can vary substantially across nations; as in 21st century the primary policy issues surrounding journalism have evolved as technological changes ... More

Political Journalism  

Jesper Strömbäck and Adam Shehata

Political journalism constitutes one of the most prominent domains of journalism, and is essential for the functioning of democracy. Ideally, political journalism should function as an ... More

Political Parallelism  

Afonso de Albuquerque

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Political parallelism refers to a pattern or relationship where the structure of the political parties is somewhat reflected by the media organizations. A concept introduced by Seymour-Ure ... More

Press Subsidies  

Mart Ots and Robert G. Picard

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Due to its function as a watchdog or fourth estate in democratic societies and a variety of commercial challenges, policy-makers have undertaken initiatives to support the production and ... More

The Producer/User Distinction in Journalism  

Ike Picone

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Journalism can be defined as a communication process between producers and consumers. Traditionally, both ends have been addressed as separate spheres. Journalism and journalism studies ... More

Professional Identity and Roles of Journalists  

Thomas Hanitzsch

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The study of journalists’ professional roles is a principal avenue to understand journalism’s identity and place in society. From the perspective of discursive institutionalism, one could ... More

Sports Journalism  

Peter English

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Sports journalism is a popular area of contemporary media that has a long history of delivering results, analysis, and opinion to both broad and specialized audiences. Like other media, it ... More

Theories of Journalism  

Stephen D. Reese

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Journalism seeks to observe and communicate what it learns of social importance, something called news, and in doing so is always in the process of creating a public by bringing it into ... More

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