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Environmental Health Impacts of Natural and Man-Made Chemicals  

Michael N. Moore

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Humans have been exposed to naturally occurring toxic chemicals and materials over the course of their existence as a species. These materials include various metals, the metalloid ... More

The Environmental History of Russia  

Stephen Brain

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Russian environmental history is a new field of inquiry, with the first archivally based monographs appearing only in the last years of the 20th century. Despite the field’s youth, ... More

Environmental History of the Mississippi River and Delta  

Christopher Morris

The Mississippi River, the longest in North America, is really two rivers geophysically. The volume is less, the slope steeper, the velocity greater, and the channel straighter in its ... More

Environmental Impacts of Tropical Soybean and Palm Oil Crops  

Kimberly M. Carlson and Rachael D. Garrett

Oil crops play a critical role in global food and energy systems. Since these crops have high oil content, they provide cooking oils for human consumption, biofuels for energy, feed for ... More

The Environmental Kuznets Curve  

David I. Stern

Online publication date:
May 2017
The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is a hypothesized relationship between environmental degradation and GDP per capita. In the early stages of economic growth, pollution emissions and ... More

Environmental Regulations in Mexico  

María E. Ibarrarán and Jerónimo Chavarría

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In Mexico, the laws and norms that regulate the environment emerged at the end of the 19th century to standardize infrastructure construction and preserve nature. However, it was not until ... More

The Environment in Health and Well-Being  

George Morris and Patrick Saunders

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Most people today readily accept that their health and disease are products of personal characteristics such as their age, gender, and genetic inheritance; the choices they make; and, of ... More

Epigenetics and the Exposome: Environmental Exposure in Disease Etiology  

Paolo Vineis and Federica Russo

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
While genomics has been founded on accurate tools that lead to a limited amount of classification error, exposure assessment in epidemiology is often affected by large error. The ... More

Ethics of the Zoo  

Jozef Keulartz

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The animal world is under increasing pressure, given the magnitude of anthropogenic environmental stress, especially from human-caused rapid climate change together with habitat ... More

Evolutionary Impacts of Climate Change  

Juha Merilä and Ary A. Hoffmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Changing climatic conditions have both direct and indirect influences on abiotic and biotic processes and represent a potent source of novel selection pressures for adaptive evolution. In ... More

Evolution of Agricultural Practices and the Transformation of the English Landscape  

Tom Williamson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Agriculture has been the principal influence on the physical structure of the English landscape for many thousands of years. Driven by a wider raft of demographic, social, and economic ... More

Extinction  

Mark V. Barrow

The prospect of extinction, the complete loss of a species or other group of organisms, has long provoked strong responses. Until the turn of the 18th century, deeply held and widely ... More

Fisheries Science and Its Environmental Consequences  

Jennifer Hubbard

Fisheries science emerged in the mid-19th century, when scientists volunteered to conduct conservation-related investigations of commercially important aquatic species for the governments ... More

Food Safety in a Global Economy: Policies and Concerns  

Tomiko Yamaguchi and Shun-Nan Chiang

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Food Waste and Biomass Recovery  

Ng Wun Jern

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Framing Complexity in Environmental and Human Health  

Hans Keune and Timo Assmuth

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Framing and dealing with complexity are crucially important in environment and human health science, policy, and practice. Complexity is a key feature of most environment and human health ... More

From Plows, Horses, and Harnesses to Precision Technologies in the North American Great Plains  

David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay, Thomas DeSutter, and Cheryl Reese

Since the discovery that food security could be improved by pushing seeds into the soil and later harvesting a desirable crop, agriculture and agronomy have gone through cycles of ... More

Global and Regional Economic Damages from Climate Change  

Anil Markandya, Elena Paglialunga, Valeria Costantini, and Giorgia Sforna

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Economic damage from climate change includes several aspects that need to be considered at the global and regional levels to achieve an equitable common solution to global warming. The ... More

Global Biogeochemical Cycling  

Fred Mackenzie and Abraham Lerman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The tendency to represent natural processes as cycles—from Latin cyclus and Greek κυκλος—is undoubtedly rooted in the human observations of repeating or periodic phenomena. The oldest ... More

Global Climate Change and the Reallocation of Water  

Rhett B. Larson

Increased water variability is one of the most pressing challenges presented by global climate change. A warmer atmosphere will hold more water and will result in more frequent and more ... More

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