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Measuring Soil Loss and Subsequent Nutrient and Organic Matter Loss on Farmland  

Vito Ferro and Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Field plots are often used to obtain experimental data (soil loss values corresponding to different climate, soil, topographic, crop, and management conditions) for predicting and ... More

Mineral Dust Cycle  

Irina Sokolik

Online publication date:
May 2016
There is scientific consensus that human activities have been altering the atmospheric composition and are a key driver of global climate and environmental changes since pre-industrial ... More

Mining, Ecological Engineering, and Metals Extraction for the 21st Century  

Margarete Kalin, William N. Wheeler, Michael P. Sudbury, and Bryn Harris

The first treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, published by Georgius Agricola in 1556, was also the first to highlight the destructive environmental side effects of mining and ... More

Modeling the Impact of Environment on Infectious Diseases  

Giovanni Lo Iacono and Gordon L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The introduction of pasteurization, antibiotics, and vaccinations, as well as improved sanitation, hygiene, and education, were critical in reducing the burden of infectious diseases and ... More

Monitoring and Modeling of Outdoor Air Pollution  

Stefan Reis

Air pollution has been a major threat to human health, ecosystems, and agricultural crops ever since the onset of widespread use of fossil fuel combustion and emissions of harmful ... More

National Parks in Developed Countries  

Leslie Richardson and Bruce Peacock

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Economics plays an important role not only in the management of national parks in developed countries, but also in demonstrating the contribution of these areas to societal well-being. The ... More

Natural Environments, Health, and Well-Being  

Matilda van den Bosch

Human beings are part of natural ecosystems and depend on them for their survival. In a rapidly changing environment and with increasing urbanization, this dependence is challenged. ... More

Nomadism  

Philip Carl Salzman

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Nomadism is a technique of population movement used to accomplish a variety of goals. It is used for primary production when the resources to be tapped are distributed thinly over a wide ... More

Nutrient Pollution and Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Archis R. Ambulkar

Since the industrial revolution, societies across the globe have observed significant urbanization and population growth. Newer technologies, industries, and manufacturing plants have ... More

Oats and Other Forage Crops  

Daren Redfearn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Oceans and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Michael Depledge, Niall McDonough, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl, Melanie Austen, Anders Goksoyr, Helena Solo-Gabriele, and John Stegeman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The interdisciplinary study of oceans and human health is an area of increasing global importance. There is a growing body of evidence that the health of the oceans and that of humans are ... More

Organic Farming  

Theodore J. K. Radovich

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Organic farming occupies a unique position among the world’s agricultural systems. While not the only available model for sustainable food production, organic farmers and their supporters ... More

Origin and Development of Agriculture in New Guinea, Island Melanesia and Polynesia  

Tim Denham

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Early agricultural and arboricultural practices in the Pacific are based on vegetative principles, namely, the asexual propagation and transplantation of plants. A vegetative orientation ... More

Payments for Ecosystem Services  

Natasha James and Erin Sills

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Payments versus Direct Controls for Environmental Externalities in Agriculture  

Alfons Weersink and David Pannell

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The production of food, fiber, and fuel often results in negative externalities due to impacts on soil, water, air, or habitat. There are two broad ways to incentivize farmers to alter ... More

Pesticides and Human Health  

Pierluigi Cocco

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The fight against agricultural and household pests accompanies the history of humanity, and a total ban on the use of pesticides seems unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future. ... More

Pollution in Terrestrial and Aquatic Sediment  

Rodney Stevens

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Prehistoric and Traditional Agriculture in Lowland Mesoamerica  

Clarissa Cagnato

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Mesoamerica is one of the world’s primary centers of domestication where agriculture arose independently. Paleoethnobotany (or archaeobotany), along with archaeology, epigraphy, and ... More

Pros and Cons of GMO Crop Farming  

Rene Van Acker, Motior Rahman, and S. Zahra H. Cici

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The global area sown to genetically modified (GM) varieties of leading commercial crops (soybean, maize, canola, and cotton) has expanded over 100-fold over two decades. Thirty countries ... More

Quaternary Science  

Kenneth Addison

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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