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Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability  

Peter J. Schubert

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Renewable energy was used exclusively by the first humans and is likely to be the predominant source for future humans. Between these times the use of extracted resources such as coal, ... More

Resilience  

Carl Folke

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Resilience thinking in relation to the environment has emerged as a lens of inquiry that serves a platform for interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration. Resilience is about cultivating ... More

Rethinking Conflict over Water  

Scott M. Moore

It has long been accepted that non-renewable natural resources like oil and gas are often the subject of conflict between both nation-states and social groups. But since the end of the ... More

Rewilding  

Jozef Keulartz

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Rewilding aims at maintaining or even increasing biodiversity through the restoration of ecological and evolutionary processes using extant keystone species or ecological replacements of ... More

Risk Perception and Its Impacts on Risk Governance  

Ortwin Renn and Andreas Klinke

Risk perception is an important component of risk governance, but it cannot and should not determine environmental policies. The reality is that people suffer and die as a result of false ... More

Risks for Occupational Health Hazards Among Solid Waste Workers  

Mehrad Bastani, Nurcin Celik, and Danielle Coogan

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Role of Cover Crops in Agriculture and Their Environmental Significance  

Helena Aronsson

Growing a cover crop between main crops imitates natural ecosystems where the soil is continuously covered with vegetation. This is an important management practice in preserving soil ... More

Sea Level Rise and Coastal Management  

James B. London

Coastal zone management (CZM) has evolved since the enactment of the U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, which was the first comprehensive program of its type. The newer iteration of ... More

Seed Banking as Future Insurance Against Crop Collapses  

Fiona Hay

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Food security is dependent on the work of plant scientists and breeders who develop new varieties of crops that are high yielding, nutritious, and tolerate a range of biotic and abiotic ... More

Sentinel Species of Marine Ecosystems  

Maria Cristina Fossi and Cristina Panti

A vigorous effort to identify and study sentinel species of marine ecosystem in the world’s oceans has developed over the past 50 years. The One Health concept recognizes that the health ... More

Social and Environmental Implications of Plantation Agriculture in Malaysia and Indonesia  

Jean-François Bissonnette and Rodolphe De Koninck

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Plantation farming emerged as a large-scale system of specialized agriculture in the tropics under European colonialism, in opposition to smallholding subsistence agriculture. Despite ... More

Socio-Technical Transitions to Sustainability  

Frank W. Geels

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Addressing persistent environmental problems such as climate change or biodiversity loss requires shifts to new kinds of energy, mobility, housing, and agro-food systems. These shifts are ... More

Soil Quality as Affected by Intensive Versus Conservative Agricultural Managements  

Luigi Badalucco

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Soils, the earth’s skin, are at the intersection of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The persistence of life on our planet depends on the maintenance of soils as ... More

Soil Resources, the Delivery of Ecosystem Services and Value  

David A. Robinson, Fiona Seaton, Katrina Sharps, Amy Thomas, Francis Parry Roberts, Martine van der Ploeg, Laurence Jones, Jannes Stolte, Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Paula Harrison, and Bridget Emmett

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Soils provide important functions, which according to the European Commission include: biomass production (e.g., agriculture and forestry); storing, filtering, and transforming nutrients, ... More

Soil Salinization  

Pichu Rengasamy

Salt accumulation in soils, affecting agricultural productivity, environmental health, and the economy of the community, is a global phenomenon since the decline of ancient Mesopotamian ... More

Soil Sediment Loading and Related Environmental Impacts from Farms  

Vito Ferro

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Beyond damage to rainfed agricultural and forestry ecosystems, soil erosion due to water affects surrounding environments. Large amounts of eroded soil are deposited in streams, lakes, and ... More

Soils, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Colin Robins

Soils are the complex, dynamic, spatially diverse, living, and environmentally sensitive foundations of terrestrial ecosystems as well as human civilizations. The modern, environmental ... More

Subsurface Flow of Water in Soils and Geological Formations  

Gerrit de Rooij

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Henry Darcy was an engineer who built the drinking water supply system of the French city of Dijon in the mid-19th century. In doing so, he developed an interest in the flow of water ... More

Subsurface (Tile) Agricultural Drainage  

Gary Sands, Srinivasulu Ale, Laura Christianson, and Nathan Utt

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Agricultural (tile) drainage enables agricultural production on millions of hectares of arable lands worldwide. Lands where drainage or irrigation (and sometimes both) are implemented, ... More

Surface Irrigation  

Luis S. Pereira and José M. Gonçalves

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Surface irrigation is the oldest and most widely used irrigation method, more than 83% of the world’s irrigated area. It comprises traditional systems, developed over millennia, and modern ... More

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