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Addressing Climate Change Through Education  

Tamara Shapiro Ledley, Juliette Rooney-Varga, and Frank Niepold

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The scientific community has made the urgent need to mitigate climate change clear and, with the ratification of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on ... More

Aerosols and Their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation, and Severe Weather Events  

Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Jiwen Fan

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Aerosols (tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere) have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and ... More

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Methanogenesis  

Alexander N. Hristov

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Agriculture is a significant source of methane, contributing about 12% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Major sources of methane from agricultural activities are fermentation ... More

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico  

Deborah L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Basin of Mexico is a key world region for understanding agricultural intensification and the development of ancient and historic cities and states. Archaeologists working in the region ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant  

John M. Marston

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The ancient Near East was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the world, giving rise to domesticated herd animals, cereals, and legumes that today have become primary ... More

The Agriculture of Early India  

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
South Asia possesses a unique Neolithic transition to agricultural domestication. India has received far less attention in the quest for evidence of early agriculture than other regions of ... More

Air Pollution and Weather Interaction in East Asia  

Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, and Congbin Fu

Air pollution is one of the grand environmental challenges in developing countries, especially those with high population density like China. High concentrations of primary and secondary ... More

An Image Reconnaissance: Agricultural Patterns and Related Environmental Impacts Viewed From Space  

Richard W. Hazlett and Joshua Peck

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Satellite reconnaissance of the Earth’s surface provides critical information about the state of human interaction with the natural environment. The strongest impact is agricultural, ... More

The Anthropocene  

Jan Zalasiewicz and Colin Waters

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Anthropocene hypothesis—that humans have impacted “the environment” but also changed the Earth’s geology—has spread widely through the sciences and humanities. This hypothesis is being ... More

Arid Environments  

Julie Laity

Arid environments cover about one third of the Earth’s surface, comprising the most extensive of the terrestrial biomes. Deserts show considerable individual variation in climate, ... More

Asset Based Approaches for Community Engagement  

Katrina Wyatt, Robin Durie, and Felicity Thomas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Atmospheric Brown Clouds  

Sumit Sharma, Liliana Nunez, and Veerabhadran Ramanathan

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) are widespread pollution clouds that can at times span an entire continent or an ocean basin. ABCs extend vertically from the ground upward to as high as 3 ... More

Benefit Transfer for Ecosystem Services  

Kevin J. Boyle and Christopher F. Parmeter

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Benefit transfer is the projection of benefits from one place and time to another time at the same place or to a new place. Thus, benefit transfer includes the adaptation of an original ... More

Big Data in Environment and Human Health  

Lora Fleming, Niccolò Tempini, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Gordon L. Nichols, Christophe Sarran, Paolo Vineis, Giovanni Leonardi, Brian Golding, Andy Haines, Anthony Kessel, Virginia Murray, Michael Depledge, and Sabina Leonelli

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Big data refers to large, complex, potentially linkable data from diverse sources, ranging from the genome and social media, to individual health information and the ... More

Biodiversity Generation and Loss  

T.H. Oliver

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Human activities in the Anthropocene are influencing the twin processes of biodiversity generation and loss in complex ways that threaten the maintenance of biodiversity levels that ... More

Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities  

Peter Kareiva and Isaac Kareiva

The concept of biodiversity hotspots arose as a science-based framework with which to identify high-priority areas for habitat protection and conservation—often in the form of nature ... More

Biodiversity in Heterogeneous and Dynamic Landscapes  

Clélia Sirami

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Although the concept of biodiversity emerged 30 years ago, patterns and processes influencing ecological diversity have been studied for more than a century. Historically, ecological ... More

CAFOs: Farm Animals and Industrialized Livestock Production  

James M. MacDonald

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Industrialized livestock production can be characterized by five key attributes: confinement feeding of animals, separation of feed and livestock production, specialization, large size, ... More

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