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Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Conservation in the Amazon  

Marc Dourojeanni

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis  

William Ruddiman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Throughout the 1900s, the warmth of the current interglaciation was viewed as completely natural in origin (prior to greenhouse-gas emissions during the industrial era). In the view of ... More

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia  

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The domestication of livestock animals has long been recognized as one of the most important and influential events in human prehistory and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry for ... More

The Emergence of Environment as a Security Imperative  

Felix Dodds

The emergence of environment as a security imperative is something that could have been avoided. Early indications showed that if governments did not pay attention to critical ... More

The Environmental History of Russia  

Stephen Brain

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Russian environmental history is a new field of inquiry, with the first archivally based monographs appearing only in the last years of the 20th century. Despite the field’s youth, ... More

Environmental History of the Mississippi River and Delta  

Christopher Morris

The Mississippi River, the longest in North America, is really two rivers geophysically. The volume is less, the slope steeper, the velocity greater, and the channel straighter in its ... More

Extinction  

Mark V. Barrow

The prospect of extinction, the complete loss of a species or other group of organisms, has long provoked strong responses. Until the turn of the 18th century, deeply held and widely ... More

Fisheries Science and Its Environmental Consequences  

Jennifer Hubbard

Fisheries science emerged in the mid-19th century, when scientists volunteered to conduct conservation-related investigations of commercially important aquatic species for the governments ... More

From Plows, Horses, and Harnesses to Precision Technologies in the North American Great Plains  

David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay, Thomas DeSutter, and Cheryl Reese

Since the discovery that food security could be improved by pushing seeds into the soil and later harvesting a desirable crop, agriculture and agronomy have gone through cycles of ... More

History of Ecological Design  

Lydia Kallipoliti

The term ecological design was coined in a 1996 book by Sim van der Ryn and Stewart Cowan, in which the authors argued for a seamless integration of human activities with natural processes ... More

History and Assessment of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

Céline Granjou and Isabelle Arpin

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The recent implementation of the IPBES is a major cornerstone in the transformation of the international environmental governance in the early 21st century. Often presented as “the IPCC ... More

Human Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan  

Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Northeast Africa forms an interesting case study for investigating the relationship between changes in environment and agriculture. Major climatic changes in the early Holocene led to ... More

Indigenous Polynesian Agriculture in Hawaiʻi  

Noa Kekuewa Lincoln and Peter Vitousek

Agriculture in Hawaiʻi was developed in response to the high spatial heterogeneity of climate and landscape of the archipelago, resulting in a broad range of agricultural strategies. Over ... More

The Industrialization of Commercial Fishing, 1930–2016  

Carmel Finley

Nations rapidly industrialized after World War II, sharply increasing the extraction of resources from the natural world. Colonial empires broke up on land after the war, but they were ... More

Quaternary Science  

Kenneth Addison

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Soils, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Colin Robins

Soils are the complex, dynamic, spatially diverse, living, and environmentally sensitive foundations of terrestrial ecosystems as well as human civilizations. The modern, environmental ... More

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