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Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe  

Aurélie Salavert

Along with ceramics production, sedentism, and herding, agriculture is a major component of the Neolithic as it is defined in Europe. Therefore, the agricultural system of the first ... More

Agricultural Methanogenesis  

Alexander N. Hristov

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Agriculture is a significant source of methane, contributing about 12% of the global anthropogenic methane emissions. Major sources of methane from agricultural activities are fermentation ... More

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico  

Deborah L. Nichols

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Basin of Mexico is a key world region for understanding agricultural intensification and the development of ancient and historic cities and states. Archaeologists working in the region ... More

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment  

Heather Williams

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and ... More

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant  

John M. Marston

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The ancient Near East was one of the earliest centers of agriculture in the world, giving rise to domesticated herd animals, cereals, and legumes that today have become primary ... More

The Agriculture of Early India  

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
South Asia possesses a unique Neolithic transition to agricultural domestication. India has received far less attention in the quest for evidence of early agriculture than other regions of ... More

An Image Reconnaissance: Agricultural Patterns and Related Environmental Impacts Viewed From Space  

Richard W. Hazlett and Joshua Peck

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Satellite reconnaissance of the Earth’s surface provides critical information about the state of human interaction with the natural environment. The strongest impact is agricultural, ... More

CAFOs: Farm Animals and Industrialized Livestock Production  

James M. MacDonald

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Industrialized livestock production can be characterized by five key attributes: confinement feeding of animals, separation of feed and livestock production, specialization, large size, ... More

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization  

Elisabeth N. Bui

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of ... More

Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization  

Tibor Tóth

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by ... More

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa  

Laura Pereira

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In ... More

The Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms  

Shu Ting Chang and Solomon P. Wasser

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The word mushroom may mean different things to different people in different countries. Specialist studies on the value of mushrooms and their products should have a clear definition of ... More

Cultivation and Impact of Wheat  

Peter Shewry

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Wheat is the most widely grown food crop in the world and the dominant staple crop in temperate countries where it contributes between about 20% and 50% of the total energy intake. About ... More

Cultivation, Improvement, and Environmental Impacts of Tea  

Mainaak Mukhopadhyay and Tapan Kumar Mondal

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Tea, the globally admired, non-alcoholic, caffeine-containing beverage, is manufactured from the tender leaves of the tea [Camellia sinensis (L.)] plant. It is basically a woody, perennial ... More

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Christopher Lu

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from art in ancient society to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are ... More

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis  

William Ruddiman

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Throughout the 1900s, the warmth of the current interglaciation was viewed as completely natural in origin (prior to greenhouse-gas emissions during the industrial era). In the view of ... More

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia  

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The domestication of livestock animals has long been recognized as one of the most important and influential events in human prehistory and has been the subject of scholarly inquiry for ... More

Economics of Low Carbon Agriculture  

Dominic Moran and Jorie Knook

Climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture through greater weather variability and the increasing frequency of extreme events. International policy is rightly ... More

Effective Practices in Mitigating Soil Erosion from Fields  

Vincenzo Bagarello

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Soil erosion by water is a natural process that cannot be avoided. Soil erosion depends on many factors, and a distinction should be made between humanly unchangeable (e.g., rainfall) and ... More

Environmental Benefits and Concerns of Center-Pivot Irrigation  

Leonor Rodriguez Sinobas

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Center-pivot irrigation systems started in the United States in the mid-20th century as an irrigation method which surpassed the traditional surface irrigation methods. At that time, they ... More

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