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Mexico in Spain’s Oceanic Empire, 1519–1821  

Christoph Rosenmüller

On August 13, 1521, the Spanish conquistadors and their native allies seized Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. The Spaniards succeeded because they had forged alliances with ... More

Mexico’s First Decades of Independence  

Christon I. Archer and Stephen B. Neufeld

By 1821, a decade of bloody warfare had fragmented the viceroyalty of New Spain, divided the population into hostile factions of patriots and royalists, and intensified old hatreds among ... More

The Middle Class in Argentina  

Ezequiel Adamovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Since the mid-19th century, Argentine society has undergone significant demographic shifts. The expansion of capitalism and the growing complexity of the state apparatus increased the ... More

Ministry of Communications and Public Works (Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas)  

Sonia Robles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Ministry of Communications and Public Works, the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Obras Públicas, or SCOP, was a powerful institution that accompanied Mexico along important historic ... More

Paraguayan National Identity  

Peter Lambert

Online publication date:
Aug 2015
Paraguay is a pluriethnic, plurilingual, and multicultural society, influenced by migration from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa, which contains many conflicting identities. Despite ... More

Porfirian Social Practices and Etiquette  

Diego Pulido Esteva

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Social life during the Porfiriato (1877–1911) was marked by constant tension between a strict moral code and practices that varied widely according to class. In recent years, research ... More

Public Health in Mexico, 1870–1943  

Claudia Agostoni

The prevention of communicable diseases, the containment of epidemic disorders, and the design of programs and the implementation of public health policies went through important ... More

The Public Sphere and Liberalism in Mexico from the Mid-19th Century to the 1930s  

Pablo A. Piccato

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Free speech was a greater concern for Mexican politicians, legislators, and intellectuals during the 19th century than electoral democracy. This can be easily verified by looking at the ... More

Pulque: A Pre-Columbian Alcoholic Beverage of Mexico  

David Yetman

Pulque, the alcoholic beverage of pre-Columbian highland Mesoamerica is the fermented derivative of aguamiel, the juice or sap of the agave known as agave pulquero—principally Agave ... More

The Social Construction of the Photographic Portrait in 19th-Century Rio de la Plata  

Andrea Cuarterolo

With the arrival of the daguerreotype in Río de la Plata, in 1840, the photography industry was immediately monopolized by portrait photographers. By 1850 there were already more than ten ... More

Social Movements in Late 20th-Century Ecuador and Bolivia  

Marc Becker

Both Ecuador and Bolivia have gained a reputation for powerful social movements that have repeatedly challenged entrenched political and economic interests that have controlled the ... More

Social Order and Mobility in 16th- and 17th-Century Central Mexico  

Tatiana Seijas

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Mexico had an exceptionally diverse population during the 16th and 17th centuries, including Indigenous peoples of different ethnicities (in the majority), Iberians, and forced migrants ... More

The Three Faces of the Mexican Family, 1872 to the Present  

Elena Jackson Albarrán

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The shape, function, and social meaning of the Mexican family changed alongside its relationship to the state, the Catholic Church, and popularly held beliefs and customs over the course ... More

Women, Politics, and Media in Uruguay, 1900–1950  

Christine Ehrick

In the first half of the 20th century, Uruguay was a relatively educated, democratic, and politically progressive South American country, and women there used old and new media for ... More

#YoSoy132, Social Media, and Political Organization  

Javier Contreras Alcántara

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
During the 2012 presidential election in Mexico, a movement arose that broke with the existing framework of political mobilizations. What began as a protest to call into question the past ... More

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