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Aztec Apocalypse, 1519–1521  

Ross Hassig

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Conquest of Mexico is typically explained in terms of European military superiority, and although this offered an advantage to the forces arrayed against the Aztecs, it was merely part ... More

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821  

Susan Kellogg

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
From a geographically, environmentally, linguistically, and ethnically highly variable Mesoamerica, Spain created a core region within her American territories. But for New Spain’s ... More

Convent and Family Property in New Spain  

Rosalva Loreto López

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The process of establishing women’s convents in Hispanic America must be understood as the result of converging expectations from the crown, the church, and important laypeople who were ... More

Digital Resources: Power of Attorney, A Digital Spatial History of Indigenous Legal Culture in Colonial Oaxaca, Mexico  

Yanna Yannakakis

“Power of Attorney in Oaxaca, Mexico: Native People, Legal Culture, and Social Networks” is an ongoing digital research project that constructs a geography of indigenous legal culture ... More

Disease, Ecology, and the Environment in Colonial Mexico  

Bradley Skopyk and Elinor G. K. Melville

The onset of Spanish imperial rule in Mexico in 1521 had profound consequences well beyond the political and cultural spheres. It also altered Mexico’s environment, reconstituting the ... More

Humboldt in Mexico, 1803–1804  

Myron Echenberg

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
During his breathtaking 19th-century scientific explorations of New Spain (as Mexico was known under Spanish rule), illustrious German scientific traveler Alexander von Humboldt crammed a ... More

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824  

Jaime E. Rodríguez O.

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The independence of New Spain was not the result of an anti-colonial struggle. Rather, it was a consequence of a great political revolution that culminated in the dissolution of the ... More

The Mexican Son, Past and Present  

Raquel G. Paraíso

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Among the many musical traditions of Mexico, the son is one of the most representative of the richness and diversity of Mexican culture. Son (or sones) is a generic term that describes ... More

Mexico in Spain’s Oceanic Empire, 1519–1821  

Christoph Rosenmüller

On August 13, 1521, the Spanish conquistadors and their native allies seized Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. The Spaniards succeeded because they had forged alliances with ... More

The Mexico that Spain Encountered  

Susan Schroeder

The Spaniards had little idea of what to expect when they set foot in North America. Mexico, as the region is known today, was in the 16th century a vast territory with a grand history. ... More

Private Enterprise, Colonialism, and the Atlantic World  

L.H. Roper

European empires would have not existed absent private enterprise both licit and illicit. Private traders, in the first instance, sustained colonies by conveying the labor and merchandise ... More

Rediscovering the Aztecs and Mayas: Field Exploration, Archaeological Exhibits, and National Museums  

Kevin M. Gosner

In the last decades of the 18th century, with the visit in 1784 of José Antonio Calderón to the Maya ruins at Palenque and the discovery in 1790 of the statue of Coatlicue and the Stone of ... More

Rural Indians and Technological Innovation, From the Chinampas of Xochimilco and Beyond  

Richard Conway

When the anthropologist Paul Kirchhoff proposed a new definition of Mesoamerica in a landmark study from 1943, the first common characteristics he identified were technological and ... More

Santa Anna and His Legacy  

Will Fowler

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Antonio López de Santa Anna (b. Xalapa, February 21, 1794; d. Mexico City, June 21, 1876) was one of the most notorious military caudillos of 19th-century Mexico. He was involved in just ... More

Social Order and Mobility in 16th- and 17th-Century Central Mexico  

Tatiana Seijas

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Mexico had an exceptionally diverse population during the 16th and 17th centuries, including Indigenous peoples of different ethnicities (in the majority), Iberians, and forced migrants ... More

Sones de la tierra in the Mexico City Inquisition  

Eloy Cruz

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition of Mexico City was in between 1569 and 1820. Its task was to regulate the moral life of the society of New Spain and it was authorized to ... More

Technology in 19th-Century Mexico  

Edward Beatty

“Technology” is the practical expression of accumulated knowledge and expertise focused on how to mediate and manipulate the world. Scholars and contemporary observers of Mexico have long ... More

Transatlantic Opera in Spain and the New World in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries  

Chad M. Gasta

Opera was performed in the Spanish-speaking New World colonies almost a century before what later would become the United States. The first operas staged in the Spanish colonies were ... More

Urbanization and Environment in Mexico since 1521  

Matthew Vitz

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Urbanization and environmental change have worked in tandem over the course of Mexican history. Hinterland production, the establishment of market economies, and the intensive ... More

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