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Agrarian Reform in Bolivia in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Carmen Soliz

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Until the 1950s, the distribution of land in Bolivia, as in the rest of Latin America, was very unequal. But in 1953, a year after the 1952 national revolution, the nationalist ... More

The Conquests of Peru  

Christopher Heaney

Between 1472 and 1572, the conquests of Peru were many: by the Inca, who in the 15th century spread from their southern Andean heartland in Cusco to build an empire that stretched from ... More

Cultural Policies of the Chávez Government  

Sujatha Fernandes

The cultural policies of the left-wing government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in the new millennium saw a shift back to funding and patronage of the arts after years of defunding and ... More

Digital Resources: Massacres and the Evolution of the Colombian War  

Óscar Parra

Since 1982 there have been at least 2,000 massacres in Colombia committed by different illegal groups and by members of the Colombian army and police. The development of the conflict in ... More

Evo Morales and Bolivian Politics in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

John Crabtree

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Evo Morales Ayma was elected president of Bolivia in December 2005, taking office in January 2006. He has since been reelected on two separate occasions, in 2009 and 2014. Like Lula in ... More

Food Science, Race, and the Nation in Colombia  

Stefan Pohl-Valero

At the beginning of the 19th century, Colombian physicians thought of food as an essential factor in shaping human character and corporeality. Framed in a neo-Hippocratic system, health ... More

Gabriel García Moreno, Conservative President of Ecuador  

Peter V. N. Henderson

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Ecuador’s Gabriel García Moreno was one of the preeminent South American conservative politicians of the early national period. His historical notoriety rests in large measure on two ... More

The Incas of the Andes  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

The Inca (also Inka) Empire, called by the Andeans themselves “Tawantinsuyu,” referred to its four parts: the Chinchaysuyu, the Antisuyu, the Collasuyu, and the Cuntisuyu. ... More

Indigenismo  

Estelle Tarica

Indigenismo is a term that refers to a broad grouping of discourses—in politics, the social sciences, literature, and the arts—concerned with the status of “the Indian” in Latin American ... More

Livestock, Livelihood, and Agrarian Change in Andean Peru  

Javier Puente

Agrarian transformations in Andean Peru, subject to larger sociopolitical and economic processes, entailed major material, environmental, and biological changes. The long history of sheep ... More

Machu Picchu  

Willie Hiatt

Machu Picchu is an Inca royal estate constructed in the mid-15th century in Peru’s picturesque high jungle. As a seasonal retreat for celebrations, religious rituals, and administrative ... More

Maternal Health in the Andes  

Nicole L. Pacino

During the pre-Columbian and colonial periods, Andean cosmological understandings shaped indigenous approaches to maternal health. Women typically gave birth at home with the assistance of ... More

Oil in the Andes  

Stephen Cote

All of the Andean nations possess oil. Each has a unique historical relationship with petroleum, but there are also similarities between the histories of oil production in Bolivia, ... More

The Pizarro Clan  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

This essay focuses on the principal Pizarro family members who played active roles in the exploration, invasion, and colonization of the Andes. Francisco Pizarro served as leader until his ... More

Potosí Mines  

Kris Lane

This article examines the long history of Potosí, Bolivia, home of the world’s most productive silver mines. The mines, discovered in 1545 and still active today, are discussed in terms of ... More

Quechua  

Alan Durston

The Quechua languages are spoken today by several million people in the Andes Mountains and adjacent lowlands, from northwestern Argentina to southwestern Colombia. Quechua historical ... More

Relations between the Andes and the Upper Amazon  

Stefano Varese

Peoples and biotas of the Andes and Amazonia have been interacting for millennia, influencing each other through complex dynamics of biological, social, and cultural adaptations. The ... More

Social Movements in Late 20th-Century Ecuador and Bolivia  

Marc Becker

Both Ecuador and Bolivia have gained a reputation for powerful social movements that have repeatedly challenged entrenched political and economic interests that have controlled the ... More

Transatlantic Opera in Spain and the New World in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries  

Chad M. Gasta

Opera was performed in the Spanish-speaking New World colonies almost a century before what later would become the United States. The first operas staged in the Spanish colonies were ... More

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Peru  

Jaymie Heilman

From 2001 to 2003, Peru’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (the Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación del Perú, or CVR) investigated and reported on human rights abuses committed in ... More

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