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Brazil—The Country of Football  

Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Football appeared in Brazil in the end of the 19th century, among a favorable environment for the practice of English sports. These sports were initially practiced not professionally by ... More

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army  

Marco Estrada-Saavedra

The 1994 Zapatista uprising in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas was the culmination of centuries of repression and exploitation of the country’s indigenous minority at the hands of ... More

Cultural Policies of the Chávez Government  

Sujatha Fernandes

The cultural policies of the left-wing government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in the new millennium saw a shift back to funding and patronage of the arts after years of defunding and ... More

Democratizing Mexican Politics, 1982–2012  

Roderic Ai Camp

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Mexico’s democratic transition provides a revealing case study of a semi-authoritarian political model evolving incrementally into an electoral democracy over two decades. One of the ... More

Food in Contemporary Cuba  

Hanna Garth

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Cuban cuisine brings together the island’s histories of colonial relations with Spain and the culinary traditions of Africans, Amerindians, Chinese laborers, and those who migrated from ... More

Gender and Sexuality in Brazil since Independence  

Sueann Caulfield and Cristiana Schettini

Over the past forty years, increasing attention to gender and sexuality in Brazilian historiography has given us a nuanced understanding of diverse ways in which women and men in Brazil’s ... More

Japanese Immigration to Brazil  

Mieko Nishida

Japanese immigration to Brazil started in 1908 as a replacement for European immigrants to work for the state of São Paulo’s expanding coffee industry. It peaked in the late 1920s and ... More

López Obrador in Democratic Mexico  

Alejandro García Magos

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (b. 1953) is one of Mexico’s most influential politicians. He has been at the forefront of Mexican politics since 2000, having served as mayor of Mexico City ... More

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Machu Picchu  

Willie Hiatt

Machu Picchu is an Inca royal estate constructed in the mid-15th century in Peru’s picturesque high jungle. As a seasonal retreat for celebrations, religious rituals, and administrative ... More

Mexican Women Writers, 1960 to the Present  

Sarah Anderson

Online publication date:
May 2018
Since the early 1960s, Mexican women writers have relentlessly fought to become recognized within a traditionally male-dominated literary canon. In the 20th century, women’s ... More

President Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (b. Rio de Janeiro, June 18, 1931) had an influential academic career before going into politics and becoming a senator, foreign minister, finance minister and ... More

Revolutionary Land Reform and Its End in Mexico  

Joseph U. Lenti

For seventy-five years the Mexican government allocated private and public land to people who needed it—and lots of it. An average of 1.3 million hectares were redistributed annually from ... More

State-Building and Roads in Postrevolutionary Chiapas and at the Turn of the 21st Century  

Jonathan Otto

Online publication date:
May 2018
Throughout the 20th century, the Mexican government used road building to incorporate the country’s disparate regions within the national economy and to enhance the visibility of remote ... More

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Peru  

Jaymie Heilman

From 2001 to 2003, Peru’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (the Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación del Perú, or CVR) investigated and reported on human rights abuses committed in ... More

#YoSoy132, Social Media, and Political Organization  

Javier Contreras Alcántara

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
During the 2012 presidential election in Mexico, a movement arose that broke with the existing framework of political mobilizations. What began as a protest to call into question the past ... More

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