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Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil  

Thomas D. Rogers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn ... More

The Association of Communitarian Health Services (ASECSA) and the Role of Religion and Health in Central America  

Susan Fitzpatrick-Behrens

The Association of Communitarian Health Services (ASECSA) is a transnational, religiously influenced health program in Central America created during the Cold War. ASECSA was founded in ... More

Atoms for Peace in Latin America  

Gisela Mateos and Edna Suárez-Díaz

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
On December 8, 1953, in the midst of increasing nuclear weapons testing and geopolitical polarization, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower launched the Atoms for Peace initiative. ... More

Charlatans and Medicine in 19th-Century Latin America  

Irina Podgorny

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the long view of history, the charlatan is a merchant in unconventional knowledge defined on the basis of his itinerant existence. Traveling from one marketplace to another, dealing in ... More

Civilian Aviation in Mexico  

Peter Soland

The Mexican government’s civil aviation program implemented elite development strategies during a period of national reconstruction. In the decades following the revolution, political ... More

Disease, Ecology, and the Environment in Colonial Mexico  

Bradley Skopyk and Elinor G. K. Melville

The onset of Spanish imperial rule in Mexico in 1521 had profound consequences well beyond the political and cultural spheres. It also altered Mexico’s environment, reconstituting the ... More

Disney Health Films in Mexico  

María Rosa Gudiño Cejudo

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
In August 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, concerned with Nazi infiltration in the Americas and continental defense, created the Office of Inter-American Affairs (OIAA) and appointed ... More

Early Modern Afro-Caribbean Healers  

Pablo F. Gómez

In the early modern Spanish Caribbean, ritual practitioners of African descent were essential providers of health care for Caribbean people of all origins. Arriving from West and West ... More

Eugenics in Latin America  

Alexandra Minna Stern

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Eugenics emerged in Latin America in the early 20th century on the intellectual foundations of 19th-century social Darwinism and positivism, and expanded in contexts influenced by ... More

Food Science, Race, and the Nation in Colombia  

Stefan Pohl-Valero

At the beginning of the 19th century, Colombian physicians thought of food as an essential factor in shaping human character and corporeality. Framed in a neo-Hippocratic system, health ... More

Guano, Intensive Agriculture, and Environmental Change in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Gregory T. Cushman

Agrarian societies in Latin America and the Caribbean have accomplished some of the most important and influential innovations in agricultural knowledge and practice in world history—both ... More

Health, Malaria Campaigns, and Development in Brazil  

Gilberto Hochman

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Latin American Environmental History  

Christopher R. Boyer

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Human interaction with nature has shaped Latin American ecology and society ever since the first people arrived in the Americas more than fifteen millennia ago. Ancient Native Americans ... More

Maternal Death in Mexico  

Paola Sesia

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Today, the death of women during pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum is considered simultaneously a public health, social inequality, and gender discrimination problem. In Mexico, ... More

Maternal Health in the Andes  

Nicole L. Pacino

During the pre-Columbian and colonial periods, Andean cosmological understandings shaped indigenous approaches to maternal health. Women typically gave birth at home with the assistance of ... More

Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

The Politics and Culture of Medicine and Disease in Central America  

David Carey Jr.

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Population Studies and Genetics in Mexico during the Cold War  

Ana Barahona

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Although their history can be traced further back to the study of heredity, variability, and evolution at the beginnings of the 20th century, studies on the genetic structure and ancestry ... More

Public Health in Mexico, 1870–1943  

Claudia Agostoni

The prevention of communicable diseases, the containment of epidemic disorders, and the design of programs and the implementation of public health policies went through important ... More

Smallpox Eradication in Mexico  

Claudia Agostoni

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The control and eradication of smallpox have been among the most studied and chronicled topics in histories of health and medicine, which is not coincidental considering the dramatic ... More

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