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Agricultural Transformations in Sugarcane and Labor in Brazil  

Thomas D. Rogers

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Portuguese took sugarcane from their Atlantic island holdings to Brazil in the first decades of the 16th century, using their model of extensive agriculture and coerced labor to turn ... More

The Bracero Program, 1942–1964  

Juan R. García

The Bracero Program began in 1942 as a temporary wartime measure but was extended repeatedly until 1964. During that time, more than 4.5 million braceros received contracts to work in the ... More

Child Labor in Brazil and Uruguay  

Marcia Guedes Vieira

The International Labour Organization estimates that there are 12.5 million children and adolescents under the age of fifteen currently working in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of ... More

Digital Resources: The Bracero History Archive  

Sharon Leon

Between 1942 and 1964 millions of Mexicans came to the United States as guest workers, authorized by a set of bilateral agreements. Beginning in late 2005, a coalition of academic scholars ... More

Domestic Service and Labor Laws in Chile and Argentina, 1931–1956  

Inés Pérez and Elizabeth Hutchison

The regulation of labor relations and social rights substantially changed workers’ lives over the course of the 20th century. Domestic service, however, was only poorly and belatedly ... More

Labor and the Environment in Latin America  

Aviva Chomsky

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Latin American labor has a well-established historiography, in dialogue with trends outside of the region. Environmental history is a newer and more exploratory field. In basic terms, ... More

Lombardo Toledano’s Struggles in the World of Labor  

Daniela Spenser

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Vicente Lombardo Toledano was born into a prosperous family in 1894 in Teziutlán, Puebla, and died in Mexico City in 1968. His life is a window into the history of the 20th century: the ... More

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the Brazilian Workers’ Party (PT)  

Ted Goertzel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (b. Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil, October 27, 1945) was born in severe poverty in the Brazilian northeast. “Lula” was a nickname which he legalized as an adult so ... More

Mercury and Silver Mining in the Colonial Atlantic  

Kendall Brown

From the time that Columbus arrived in the Caribbean until Spain surrendered power over its mainland American colonies in the early 19th century, Spanish and Portuguese colonial mines ... More

The Middle Class in Argentina  

Ezequiel Adamovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Since the mid-19th century, Argentine society has undergone significant demographic shifts. The expansion of capitalism and the growing complexity of the state apparatus increased the ... More

Neoliberalism and Free Trade in Latin America  

Robert Jordan

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
First utilized in Latin America in response to the mid-20th-century decline of populist economic policymaking in the region, modern neoclassical theory, or neoliberalism, can be generally ... More

Oil and Environment in Mexico  

Myrna Santiago

Before there was Mexico, there was oil. Millennia of organic matter that collapsed and liquefied into fossil fuel rested deep underground and underwater along the half-moon territorial ... More

Potosí Mines  

Kris Lane

This article examines the long history of Potosí, Bolivia, home of the world’s most productive silver mines. The mines, discovered in 1545 and still active today, are discussed in terms of ... More

Social Movements in Late 20th-Century Ecuador and Bolivia  

Marc Becker

Both Ecuador and Bolivia have gained a reputation for powerful social movements that have repeatedly challenged entrenched political and economic interests that have controlled the ... More

The Spanish Caribbean, 1492–1550  

Ida Altman

The arrival of Christopher Columbus in the northern Caribbean with three Spanish ships in October 1492 marked the beginning of continuing European contact with the Americas. With his ... More

Sugar Cane and Agricultural Transformations in Cuba  

Reinaldo Funes Monzote

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For the greater part of the 19th and 20th centuries, Cuba, the largest island in the Antilles, figured as the principal exporter of sugar cane, a product that dominated the country’s ... More

Water and Environmental Change in the U.S.–Mexico Borderlands  

Sterling Evans

Aridity, a significant characteristic of the U.S.–Mexico borderlands, has affected water use patterns for different groups of people in this region for thousands of years. From indigenous ... More

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