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Endangered Languages  

Chris Rogers and Lyle Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The reduction of the world’s linguistic diversity has accelerated over the last century and correlates to a loss of knowledge, collective and individual identity, and social value. Often a ... More

Eskimo-Aleut  

Anna Berge

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
The Eskimo-Aleut language family consists of two quite different branches, Aleut and Eskimo. The latter consists of Yupik and Inuit languages. It is spoken from the eastern coast of Russia ... More

Etymology in Romance  

Eva Buchi and Steven N. Dworkin

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Evaluatives in Morphology  

Nicola Grandi

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Evaluative morphology is a field of linguistic studies that deals with the formation of diminutives, augmentatives, pejoratives, and amelioratives. Actually, evaluative constructions cross ... More

Existential and Locative Constructions in the Romance Languages  

Delia Bentley

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Exoskeletal Versus Endoskeletal Approaches in Morphology  

Víctor Acedo-Matellán

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
A fundamental difference in theoretical models of morphology and, particularly, of the syntax–morphology interface is that between endoskeletal and exoskeletal approaches. In the former, ... More

Experimental Pragmatics  

Florian Schwarz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While both pragmatic theory and experimental investigations of language using psycholinguistic methods have been well-established subfields in the language sciences for a long time, the ... More

Experimental Semiotics  

Bruno Galantucci

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Experimental Semiotics (ES) is a burgeoning new discipline aimed at investigating in the laboratory the development of novel forms of human communication. Conceptually connected to ... More

Ferdinand de Saussure  

John E. Joseph

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913), the founding figure of modern linguistics, made his mark on the field with a book he published a month after his 21st birthday, in which he proposed a ... More

Formants  

Daniel Aalto, Jarmo Malinen, and Martti Vainio

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Formant frequencies are the positions of the local maxima of the power spectral envelope of a sound signal. They arise from acoustic resonances of the vocal tract air column, and they ... More

French-Based Creole Languages  

Anne Hertz

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Frequency Effects in Grammar  

Holger Diessel and Martin Hilpert

Online publication date:
May 2016
Until recently, theoretical linguists have paid little attention to the frequency of linguistic elements in grammar and grammatical development. It is a standard assumption of (most) ... More

Game Theory in Pragmatics: Evolution, Rationality, and Reasoning  

Michael Franke

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Game theory provides formal means of representing and explaining action choices in social decision situations where the choices of one participant depend on the choices of another. Game ... More

Gender  

Jenny Audring

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Gender is a grammatical feature, in a family with person, number, and case. In the languages that have grammatical gender—according to a representative typological sample, almost half of ... More

Genealogical Classification in Historical Linguistics  

Søren Wichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Different methods exist for classifying languages, depending on whether the task is to work out the relations among languages already known to be related—internal language ... More

Generative Grammar  

Knut Tarald Taraldsen

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
This article presents different types of generative grammar that can be used as models of natural languages focusing on a small subset of all the systems that have been devised. The ... More

Georg von der Gabelentz  

James McElvenny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The German sinologist and general linguist Georg von der Gabelentz (1840–1893) occupies an interesting place at the intersection of several streams of linguistic scholarship at the end of ... More

Grammaticalization  

Walter Bisang

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Linguistic change not only affects the lexicon and the phonology of words, it also operates on the grammar of a language. In this context, grammaticalization is concerned with the ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

History of European Vernacular Grammar Writing  

Gerda Haßler

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The grammatization of European vernacular languages began in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance and continued up until the end of the 18th century. Through this process, grammars were ... More

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