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History of the English Language  

Ans van Kemenade

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The status of English in the early 21st century makes it hard to imagine that the language started out as an assortment of North Sea Germanic dialects spoken in parts of England only by ... More

Hmong-Mien Languages  

David R. Mortensen

Online publication date:
May 2017
Hmong-Mien (also known as Miao-Yao) is a bipartite family of minority languages spoken primarily in China and mainland Southeast Asia. The two branches, called Hmongic and Mienic by most ... More

Hokan Languages  

Carmen Jany

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Hokan is a linguistic stock or phylum based on a series of hypotheses about deeper genetic relationships among languages that extend geographically from Northern California to Nicaragua. ... More

Humor in Language  

Salvatore Attardo

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Interest in the linguistics of humor is widespread and dates since classical times. Several theoretical models have been proposed to describe and explain the function of humor in language. ... More

Iconicity  

Irit Meir and Oksana Tkachman

Iconicity is a relationship of resemblance or similarity between the two aspects of a sign: its form and its meaning. An iconic sign is one whose form resembles its meaning in some way. ... More

Incorporation and Pseudo-Incorporation in Syntax  

Diane Massam

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Noun incorporation (NI) is a grammatical construction where a nominal, usually bearing the semantic role of an object, has been incorporated into a verb to form a complex verb or ... More

Inflectional Morphology  

Gregory Stump

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Inflection is the systematic relation between words’ morphosyntactic content and their morphological form; as such, the phenomenon of inflection raises fundamental questions about the ... More

Innateness of Language  

Yarden Kedar

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Iroquoian Languages  

Karin Michelson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The Iroquoian languages are spoken today in New York State, Ontario, Quebec, Wisconsin, North Carolina, and Oklahoma. The languages share a relatively small segment inventory, a ... More

Japanese Linguistics  

Natsuko Tsujimura

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The rigor and intensity of investigation on Japanese in modern linguistics has been particularly noteworthy over the past 50 years. Not only has the elucidation of the similarities to and ... More

Japanese Psycholinguistics  

Mineharu Nakayama

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Japanese psycholinguistics research field is moving rapidly in many different directions as it includes various sub-linguistics fields (e.g., phonetics/phonology, syntax, semantics, ... More

Kiowa-Tanoan Languages  

Daniel Harbour

The Kiowa-Tanoan family is a small group of Native American languages of the Plains and pueblo Southwest. It comprises Kiowa, of the eponymous Plains tribe, and the pueblo-based Tanoan ... More

Korean Phonetics and Phonology  

Young-mee Yu Cho

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Due to a number of unusual and interesting properties, Korean phonetics and phonology have been generating productive discussion within modern linguistic theories, starting from ... More

Korean Syntax  

James Hye Suk Yoon

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The syntax of Korean is characterized by several signature properties. One signature property is head-finality. Word order variations and restrictions obey head-finality. Korean also ... More

Kra-Dai Languages  

Yongxian Luo

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Language and Linguistics in Medieval Europe  

Deborah Hayden

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
During the period from the fall of the Roman empire in the late 5th century to the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 14th century, the development of linguistic thought in ... More

Language and Linguistics in Pre-Modern China and East Asia  

Lei Zhu

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Traditional Chinese linguistics grew out of two distinct interests in language: the philosophical reflection on things and their names, and the practical concern for literacy education and ... More

Language and Social Hierarchy in West Africa  

Judith T. Irvine

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the indigenous sociolinguistic systems of West Africa, an important way of expressing—and creating—social hierarchy in interaction is through intermediaries: third parties, through whom ... More

Language Contact in the Sahara  

Lameen Souag

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
As might be expected from the difficulty of traversing it, the Sahara Desert has been a fairly effective barrier to direct contact between its two edges; trans-Saharan language contact is ... More

The Language of the Economy and Business in the Romance Languages  

Franz Rainer

The expression language of the economy and business refers to an extremely heterogeneous linguistic reality. For some, it denotes all text and talk produced by economic agents in the ... More

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