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Altaic Languages  

George Starostin

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
“Altaic” is a common term applied by linguists to a number of language families, spread across Central Asia and the Far East and sharing a large, most likely non-coincidental, number of ... More

Berber-Arabic Language Contact  

Maarten Kossmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Since the start of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th century ce, Berber and Arabic have been in continual contact. This has led to large-scale mutual influence. The ... More

Early Modern English  

Terttu Nevalainen

In the Early Modern English period (1500–1700), steps were taken toward Standard English, and this was also the time when Shakespeare wrote, but these perspectives are only part of the ... More

Ferdinand de Saussure  

John E. Joseph

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913), the founding figure of modern linguistics, made his mark on the field with a book he published a month after his 21st birthday, in which he proposed a ... More

Genealogical Classification in Historical Linguistics  

Søren Wichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Different methods exist for classifying languages, depending on whether the task is to work out the relations among languages already known to be related—internal language ... More

Georg von der Gabelentz  

James McElvenny

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The German sinologist and general linguist Georg von der Gabelentz (1840–1893) occupies an interesting place at the intersection of several streams of linguistic scholarship at the end of ... More

Historical Developments from Middle to Early New Indo-Aryan  

Vit Bubenik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
While in phonology Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) dialects preserved the phonological system of Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) virtually intact, their morphosyntax underwent far-reaching changes, which ... More

The Language of the Economy and Business in the Romance Languages  

Franz Rainer

The expression language of the economy and business refers to an extremely heterogeneous linguistic reality. For some, it denotes all text and talk produced by economic agents in the ... More

Language Revitalization  

Aidan Pine and Mark Turin

The world is home to an extraordinary level of linguistic diversity, with roughly 7,000 languages currently spoken and signed. Yet this diversity is highly unstable and is being rapidly ... More

Languages of the Balkans  

Victor A. Friedman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Balkan languages were the first group of languages whose similarities were explained in modern linguistic terms as a result of language contact rather than as a result of descent from ... More

Middle English  

Cynthia L. Allen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Middle English is the name given to the English of the period from approximately 1100 to approximately 1450. This period is marked by substantial developments in all areas of English ... More

Morphological Change  

Carola Trips

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Morphological change refers to change(s) in the structure of words. Since morphology is interrelated with phonology, syntax, and semantics, changes affecting the structure and properties ... More

Morphosyntax of Himalayan Languages  

George van Driem

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Several language families and a few language isolates are represented in the Himalayas, the world’s greatest massif, running a length of over 3,600 km. The most well-represented language ... More

Muskogean Languages  

Jack B. Martin

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Muskogean languages are a family of languages indigenous to the southeastern United States. Members of the family include Chickasaw, Choctaw, Alabama, Koasati, Apalachee, ... More

Old and Middle Japanese  

Bjarke Frellesvig

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Old and Middle Japanese are the pre-modern periods of the attested history of the Japanese language. Old Japanese (OJ) is largely the language of the 8th century, with a modest, but still ... More

Origins of the Japanese Language  

Alexander Vovin

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Northeast Asia is one of the unique points on the globe where there are many language isolates and portmanteau families. From a conservative point of view, the Japanese language is a ... More

Penutian Languages  

Anthony P. Grant

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Penutian language family, Penutian phylum, or better still, Penutian hypothesis is one of the largest genealogical linguistic groupings to have been proposed for western North America. ... More

Pidgin Languages  

Mikael Parkvall

Pidgin languages sometimes form in contact situations where a means of communication is urgently needed between groups lacking a common code. They are typically less elaborate than any of ... More

Pitch Accent in Korean  

Chiyuki Ito and Michael J. Kenstowicz

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Typologically, pitch-accent languages stand between stress languages like Spanish and tone languages like Shona, and share properties of both. In a stress language, typically just one ... More

Polysynthesis: A Diachronic and Typological Perspective  

Michael Fortescue

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Polysynthesis is informally understood as the packing of a large number of morphemes into single words, as in (1) from Bininj Gun-wok (Evans, in press).1) ... More

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