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The Functional Organization of Vertebrate Retinal Circuits for Vision  

Tom Baden, Timm Schubert, Philipp Berens, and Thomas Euler

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Visual processing begins in the retina—a thin, multilayered neuronal tissue lining the back of the vertebrate eye. The retina does not merely read out the constant stream of photons ... More

General Principles for Sensory Coding  

Tatyana O. Sharpee

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Sensory systems exist to provide an organism with information about the state of the environment that can be used to guide future actions and decisions. Remarkably, two conceptually simple ... More

Hemichordate Nervous System  

Norio Miyamoto and Hiroshi Wada

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates consisting of two distinct groups: the solitary enteropneusts and the colonial pterobranchs. Hemichordates are phylogenetically a sister group to ... More

Hypothalamic Control of Female Reproduction  

Brian P. Kenealy and Ei Terasawa

Online publication date:
May 2017
Female reproduction is an interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. While the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron in the hypothalamus regulates gonadal function ... More

Insect Navigation: Neural Basis to Behavior  

Stanley Heinze

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Navigation is the ability of animals to move through their environment in a planned manner. Different from directed but reflex-driven movements, it involves the comparison of ... More

Invertebrate Nociception  

Nathaniel J. Himmel, Atit A. Patel, and Daniel N. Cox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Nociception is a protective mechanism that mediates behavioral responses to a range of potentially damaging stimuli, including noxious temperature, chemicals, and mechanical stimulation. ... More

Jellyfish Locomotion  

Richard Satterlie

Online publication date:
May 2018
Two dichotomies exist within the swim systems of jellyfish—one centered on the mechanics of locomotion and the other on phylogenetic differences in nervous system organization. For ... More

Leech Behavioral Choice  

William B. Kristan Jr.

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A ... More

Leech Mechanosensation  

Brian D. Burrell

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression  

Arianna Maffei

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Synaptic connections in the brain can change their strength in response to patterned activity. This ability of synapses is defined as synaptic plasticity. Long lasting forms of synaptic ... More

Mammalian Visual System Organization  

Farran Briggs

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Many mammals, including humans, rely primarily on vision to sense the environment. While a large proportion of the brain is devoted to vision in highly visual animals, there are not enough ... More

Molecular Regulation of Energy Balance  

D. Grahame Hardie and A. Mark Evans

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Motion Processing in Primates  

Tyler S. Manning and Kenneth H. Britten

Online publication date:
May 2017
The ability to see motion is critical to survival in a dynamic world. Decades of physiological research have established that motion perception is a distinct sub-modality of vision ... More

Multisensory Integration and the Perception of Self-Motion  

Kathleen E. Cullen

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
As we go about our everyday activities, our brain computes accurate estimates of both our motion relative to the world, and of our orientation relative to gravity. Essential to this ... More

Network Analyses and Nervous System Disorders  

John D. Medaglia and Danielle S. Bassett

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Network analyses in nervous system disorders involve constructing and analyzing anatomical and functional brain networks from neuroimaging data to describe and predict the clinical ... More

Neural Population Coding of Natural Sounds in Non-flying Mammals  

Israel Nelken

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Understanding the principles by which sensory systems represent natural stimuli is one of the holy grails of neuroscience. In the auditory system, the study of the coding of natural sounds ... More

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms in Diurnal Species  

Lily Yan, Laura Smale, and Antonio A. Nunez

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Circadian rhythms are endogenous daily rhythms evident in behavior and physiology. In mammals, these rhythms are controlled by a hierarchical network of oscillators showing a coherent ... More

Neuroimmunology: Behavioral Effects  

Gretchen N. Neigh, Mandakh Bekhbat, and Sydney A. Rowson

Bidirectional interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have been acknowledged for centuries. Over the past 100 years, pioneering studies in both animal models and ... More

Neuroinflammation and Neuroplasticity in Pain  

Jürgen Sandkühler

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Much progress has been made in unraveling the mechanisms that underlie the transition from acute to chronic pain. Traditional beliefs are being replaced by novel, more powerful concepts ... More

Plasticity in the Regenerating Nervous System of the Lamprey, a “Simple” Vertebrate  

William Rodemer, Jianli Hu, and Michael E. Selzer

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Human spinal cord injury (SCI) results in long-lasting disabilities due to the failure of damaged neurons to regenerate. The barriers to axon regeneration in mammalian central nervous ... More

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