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Plasticity of Stepping Rhythms in the Intact and Injured Mammalian Spinal Cord  

Serge Rossignol

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The spinal cord is a prime example of how the central nervous system has evolved to execute and retain movements adapted to the environment. This results from the evolution of inborn ... More

Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb  

Aleksandra Polosukhina and Pierre-Marie Lledo

Subject:
Development
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Please check back later for the full article. In ... More

Prolactin: Regulation and Actions  

Robert S. Bridges

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Prolactin (PRL) is a protein hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 23 KD, although variants in size exist. It binds to receptor dimers on the cytoplasmic surface of its target ... More

Raptor Vision  

Mindaugas Mitkus, Simon Potier, Graham R. Martin, Olivier Duriez, and Almut Kelber

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Diurnal raptors (birds of the orders Accipitriformes and Falconiformes), renowned for their extraordinarily sharp eyesight, have fascinated humans for centuries. The high visual acuity in ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

Sex-Specific Regulation of Peripheral and Central Immune Responses  

Sabra L. Klein and Jaclyn M. Schwarz

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Sex is a biological variable that affects immune responses to both self and foreign antigens (e.g., microbial infections) in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in peripheral ... More

Sexual Behavior in Females from a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Donald Pfaff

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Understanding of the brain mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors in female laboratory animals has been aided greatly by our knowledge of estrogen receptors in the brain. ... More

Sexual Behavior in Males From a Neuroendocrine Perspective  

Jacques Balthazart and Gregory F. Ball

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
It is well established that testosterone from testicular origin plays a critical role in the activation of male sexual behavior in most, if not all, vertebrate species. These effects take ... More

Steroids and Plasticity  

Alyssa L. Pedersen and Colin J. Saldanha

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Given the profound influence of steroids on the organization and activation of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), it is perhaps not surprising that these molecules are involved ... More

Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Wolfgang Stein

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce ... More

Stomatopod Vision  

Thomas W. Cronin, N. Justin Marshall, and Roy L. Caldwell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The predatory stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are among the most attractive and dynamic creatures living in the sea. Their special features include their powerful raptorial ... More

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Anatomy, Physiology, and Neurochemistry  

Rae Silver

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
We live in an approximately 24-hour world and circadian rhythms have evolved to adapt organisms to the opportunities presented by Earth’s 24-hour cycle of light and dark. A “master clock” ... More

Thalamocortical Interactions for Sensory Processing  

Jose M. Alonso and Harvey A. Swadlow

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The thalamocortical pathway is the main route of sensory information to the cerebral cortex. Vision, touch, hearing, taste, and balance all depend on the integrity of this pathway that ... More

Urochordate Nervous Systems  

Kerrianne Ryan and Ian A. Meinertzhagen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Urochordates are chordate siblings that comprise the following marine invertebrates: the sessile Ascidiaceae, or sea squirts; planktonic Larvacea; and the pelagic salps, doliolids, and ... More

Using Neural Stem Cells to Enhance Repair and Recovery of Spinal Circuits After Injury  

Itzhak Fischer and Shaoping Hou

Spinal cord injury is characterized by a complex set of events, which include the disruption of connectivity between the brain and the periphery with little or no spontaneous regeneration, ... More

Visual Attention  

Sabine Kastner and Timothy J. Buschman

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Natural scenes are cluttered and contain many objects that cannot all be processed simultaneously. Due to this limited processing capacity, neural mechanisms are needed to selectively ... More

Visual Shape and Object Perception  

Anitha Pasupathy, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, and Dina V. Popovkina

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Humans and other primates rely on vision. Our visual system endows us with the ability to perceive, recognize, and manipulate objects, to avoid obstacles and dangers, to choose foods ... More

Xenacoelomorpha Nervous Systems  

Pedro Martínez, Volker Hartenstein, and Simon G. Sprecher

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The emergence and diversification of bilateral animals are among the most important transitions in the history of life on our planet. A proper understanding of the evolutionary process ... More

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