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Annelid Vision  

Cynthia M. Harley and Mark K. Asplen

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Annelid worms are simultaneously an interesting and difficult model system for understanding the evolution of animal vision. On the one hand, a wide variety of photoreceptor cells and eye ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Feeding Behaviors  

Nicolas Dallière, Lindy Holden-Dye, James Dillon, Vincent O'Connor, and Robert J. Walker

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The microscopic free-living nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was the first metazoan to have its genome sequenced and for many decades has served as a genetically tractable model for ... More

Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction  

Douglas K. Reilly and Jagan Srinivasan

To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or ... More

Cephalochordate Nervous System  

Simona Candiani and Mario Pestarino

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of ... More

Cephalopod Nervous System Organization  

Z. Yan Wang and Clifton W. Ragsdale

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Cephalopod Olfaction  

Anna Di Cosmo and Gianluca Polese

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Within the Phylum Mollusca, cephalopods encompass a small and complex group of exclusively marine animals that live in all the oceans of the world with the exception of the Black and ... More

Crayfish Escape  

Donald Edwards

Online publication date:
May 2017
Crayfish are decapod crustaceans that use different forms of escape to flee from different types of predatory attacks. Lateral and Medial Giant escapes are released by giant interneurons ... More

Crustacean Olfaction  

Charles Derby and Manfred Schmidt

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Olfaction is a chemical sense present not only in mammals, insects, and other terrestrial animals, but also in crustaceans, most of which are aquatic. Crustaceans use olfaction for ... More

Drosophila Olfaction  

Quentin Gaudry and Jonathan Schenk

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Olfactory systems are tasked with converting the chemical environment into electrical signals that the brain can use to optimize behaviors such as navigating towards resources, finding ... More

Echinoderm Nervous System  

Carlos A. Díaz-Balzac and José E. García-Arrarás

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The nervous system of echinoderms has been studied for well over a century. Nonetheless, the information available is disparate, with in-depth descriptions for the nervous component of ... More

Hemichordate Nervous System  

Norio Miyamoto and Hiroshi Wada

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates consisting of two distinct groups: the solitary enteropneusts and the colonial pterobranchs. Hemichordates are phylogenetically a sister group to ... More

Insect Navigation: Neural Basis to Behavior  

Stanley Heinze

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Navigation is the ability of animals to move through their environment in a planned manner. Different from directed but reflex-driven movements, it involves the comparison of ... More

Invertebrate Nociception  

Nathaniel J. Himmel, Atit A. Patel, and Daniel N. Cox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Nociception is a protective mechanism that mediates behavioral responses to a range of potentially damaging stimuli, including noxious temperature, chemicals, and mechanical stimulation. ... More

Jellyfish Locomotion  

Richard Satterlie

Online publication date:
May 2018
Two dichotomies exist within the swim systems of jellyfish—one centered on the mechanics of locomotion and the other on phylogenetic differences in nervous system organization. For ... More

Leech Behavioral Choice  

William B. Kristan Jr.

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
New techniques for recording the activity of many neurons simultaneously have given insights into how neuronal circuits make the decision to perform one of many possible behaviors. A ... More

Leech Mechanosensation  

Brian D. Burrell

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana) is an annelid (segmented worm) and one of the classic model systems in neuroscience. It has been used in research for over 50 years and was one of the ... More

Sensing Polarized Light in Insects  

Thomas F. Mathejczyk and Mathias F. Wernet

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Evolution has produced vast morphological and behavioral diversity amongst insects, including very successful adaptations to a diverse range of ecological niches spanning the invasion of ... More

Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Wolfgang Stein

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system contains a set of distinct but interacting rhythmic motor circuits that control movements of the foregut. When isolated, these circuits produce ... More

Stomatopod Vision  

Thomas W. Cronin, N. Justin Marshall, and Roy L. Caldwell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The predatory stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are among the most attractive and dynamic creatures living in the sea. Their special features include their powerful raptorial ... More

Urochordate Nervous Systems  

Kerrianne Ryan and Ian A. Meinertzhagen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Urochordates are chordate siblings that comprise the following marine invertebrates: the sessile Ascidiaceae, or sea squirts; planktonic Larvacea; and the pelagic salps, doliolids, and ... More

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