Discover OREs

Discover Oxford Research Encyclopedias

The Oxford Research Encyclopedias (OREs) publishing model is more open, transparent, and engaging than the traditional approach to scholarly reference. Each Oxford Research Encyclopedia is developed in stages. Learn more about this process and currently available OREs below.

View the Homepages of Current Oxford Research Encyclopedias

Preview Sites
Information Sites & Article Summaries
Economics and Finance
Global Public Health
Planetary Science

Full-text Articles
African History
Asian History
Business and Management
Climate Science
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Environmental Science
International Studies
Natural Hazard Science

Available via Subscription
American History
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Latin American History
Oxford Classical Dictionary

Learn more about the Oxford Research Encyclopedia Development Process

Each discipline-based Oxford Research Encyclopedia begins with the appointment of an Editor in Chief, who creates a plan for the development of the ORE in their field. The plan is reviewed by scholars in the field and refined. The Editor in Chief then assembles an Editorial Board to advise on article topics, potential authors, and other matters. At this stage, OUP launches an information website to announce to initiation of the project and to provide background on its goals and direction.

The ORE then moves into a commissioning phase, where authors are invited to write on topics they know best. Authors are given an option to submit a brief summary in advance of their full article, and these summaries are published as they are approved. Full articles undergo multiple rounds of peer review, and once approved they are published online.

New approved articles and new summaries are added to the ORE on an ongoing basis. The full website is entirely free during an initial development period of several years. After a significant amount of content has been published, there is a fee to access all of the articles on the site, although a portion remains freely accessible. Fees go back into the project to fund the ongoing editorial work.