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Research Findings on the Evolution of Peacekeeping  

Theodora-Ismene Gizelis, Han Dorussen, and Marina Petrova

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Peacekeeping has evolved both in its focus and in setting increasingly ambitious goals. In effect, the referent object of peacekeeping—what and whose peace is to be kept—has changed. The ... More

The Role of Reparations in the Transition from Violence to Peace  

Peter J. Dixon

Reparations are among the most tangible, victim-centric, and personal of processes in the transition from violence to peace, symbolizing the recognition that an individual has been harmed ... More

The Spread of Conflict in International Relations  

Nils W. Metternich

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
International relations as a subfield in political science has always been fundamentally concerned about the relations between actors and how they lead to conflictual or cooperative ... More

The State of Hezbollah? Sovereignty as a Potentiality in Global South Contexts  

Imad Mansour

The understanding of the differences in what a state and nonstate actors are and do in the Global South is augmented if we historicize these categories. In particular, the category of the ... More

The Steps to War: Theory and Evidence  

Andrew P. Owsiak

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The steps-to-war theory maintains that war results from the issues under dispute and how states handle these issues. Its foundation rests on the territorial explanation of war, which ... More

The Strategic Use of State Repression and Political Violence  

Jacqueline H. R. deMeritt

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Repression is the act of subduing someone by institutional or physical force. Political violence is a particular form of repression involving the use of physical force to achieve political ... More

Suicide Terrorism Theories  

Susanne Martin and Ami Pedahzur

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Suicide terrorism has captured considerable attention since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Governments offered unprecedented support for scholars who were willing to research the ... More

Territory, Contentious Issues, and International Relations  

Paul R. Hensel

Online publication date:
May 2017
Territorial issues have been prominent causes of armed conflict and war in the modern era. This observation has led to a rapidly growing body of academic literature on the sources, ... More

Terrorism and Foreign Policy  

Brian Lai

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The effect of foreign policy on terrorism is an important area of research that bridges work on international relations and intrastate conflict by highlighting how an outside country can ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: An Overview  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Global terror began in the 1880s, but it took a century before a few scholars began to understand its peculiar dynamic. One reason for the difficulty was that many scholars and government ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anticolonial Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The Versailles Treaty ending World War I established a new international order by creating the League of Nations and, dividing the defeated empires in Europe into a number of ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: New Left Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the 1960s the international world changed dramatically. While the nuclear balance of terror created by the atomic bomb prevented war between the First and the Second Worlds, proxy wars ... More

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Religious Wave  

David C. Rapoport

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Time gaps existed in the first three waves between precipitating political events and the development of terrorist activity. But now the time gap has disappeared because the precipitating ... More

Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to Uncertainty and Conflict in International Relations  

Muhammet A. Bas and Robert Schub

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Uncertainty is pervasive in international politics. This uncertainty can have many sources. Each source has different origins and implications for the likelihood of conflict. Existing ... More

Theories of Civil War Onset: Promises and Pitfalls  

Adrian Florea

Online publication date:
May 2017
Empirical research on civil war onset has been largely dominated by two approaches: a correlational or “correlates of civil war” approach which seeks to identify country-level ... More

Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and ... More

Understanding Government Behavior During Armed Conflict  

Cyanne E. Loyle

How and why do governments choose the strategies that they do during armed conflict? While there is a substantial body of research on the use of different tactics by governments and rebels ... More

Violence, Politics, and Gender  

Gabrielle S. Bardall

This article presents a conceptual orientation to the intersection of gender, politics, and violence. The first part of the article will introduce the subject by reviewing the primary ... More

War in Political Philosophy  

Helen Frowe

We can distinguish between three moral approaches to war: pacifism, realism, and just war theory. There are various theoretical approaches to war within the just war tradition. One of the ... More

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