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Accountability and Responsibility  

Robert Gregory

Accountability and responsibility are related ideas that are central to political, constitutional, and institutional arrangements in Western liberal democracies. However, political elites ... More

Attitudes Toward Women and the Influence of Gender on Political Decision Making  

Mary-Kate Lizotte

There is a great deal of research, spanning social psychology, sociology, and political science, on politically relevant attitudes toward women and the influence of gender on individual’s ... More

Authority, Authoritarianism, and Religion  

Ryan P. Burge

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Since around the 1950s, hundreds of articles have been published in social science that are concerned with the concept of authority and authoritarianism and how both relate to religion. ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups  

Emil Aslan Souleimanov

Reflecting on the recent rise of Salafi groups and their impact on civil war, the academic literature on Salafi radicalization, mobilization, and recruitment has burgeoned in the recent ... More

Comparative Political Regimes: Consensus and Majoritarian Democracy  

Matthijs Bogaards

Ever since Aristotle, the comparative study of political regimes and their performance has relied on classifications and typologies. The study of democracy today has been influenced ... More

Constructivism  

Friedrich Kratochwil

Online publication date:
May 2017
Constructivism in the social sciences has known several ups and downs over the last decades. It was rather early successful in sociology but hotly contested in international relations. ... More

Counterfactuals and Foreign Policy Analysis  

Richard Ned Lebow

Counterfactuals seek to alter some feature or event of the pass and by means of a chain of causal logic show how the present might, or would, be different. Counterfactual inquiry—or ... More

Electoral Choice and Religion: An Overview  

Christopher D. Raymond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
A wide body of research has studied the impact of religious cleavages on electoral choice in a range of democracies. This research focuses on two types of religious cleavages. One type of ... More

Gender and Religiosity in the United States  

Mirya R. Holman and Erica Podrazik

Religiosity is a combination of public and private religious practices, beliefs, and experiences. While diversity exists in how religiosity is measured, three central components are ... More

Government Legitimacy and Religion  

Michael Hoffman

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Despite the predictions of Marxists and secularization theorists alike, the relationship between religion and government legitimacy is mixed. Religion, in its various forms, can serve to ... More

Liberalism  

Samuel Freeman

Liberalism in politics is associated with nonauthoritarianism, the rule of law, constitutional government with limited powers, and the guarantee of civil and political liberties. A liberal ... More

The Market for Accountability Journalism  

James T. Hamilton

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. If most ... More

Marxism in Foreign Policy  

Benno Teschke and Steffan Wyn-Jones

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The problematic implications of the long absence of a dedicated encounter between Marxism and FPA (foreign policy analysis) are discussed. This absence has been marked by a series of ... More

Men’s Political Representation  

Elin Bjarnegård

In much research on gender and representation, the constraining factors for women’s political representation have served as a backdrop against which women’s activities are contextualized, ... More

Nationalism and Foreign Policy  

Harris Mylonas and Kendrick Kuo

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Nationalism continues to be an important ideology that informs the way state elites formulate and implement foreign policy. The relationship between nationalism and foreign policy is ... More

Non-Governmental Organizations: Bread for the World, Inc.  

Erica Ashbaugh and Gary A. Goreham

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Bread for the World, Inc. is a 501(c)4 faith-based organization whose purpose is to advocate policymakers to end hunger and poverty. The organization began in the early 1970s, founded by ... More

Party Families and Political Ideologies  

Herbert Kitschelt

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Conceptions of party family serve as signals to political actors, but also as analytical categories for scholars to classify parties with the purpose of developing theoretical arguments ... More

Party Identification and Its Implications  

Russell J. Dalton

Early electoral research in the United States discovered the most important concept in the study of political behavior: party identification. Party identification is a long-term, affective ... More

The Political Opportunity Structure and Religion  

Luis Felipe Mantilla

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
There is growing scholarly recognition of the prominent role that religion can play in empowering, shaping, and constraining political mobilization. Conceptually, religion can intersect ... More

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