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A Revisionist Perspective on Framing Effects  

Jiawei Liu and Dietram A. Scheufele

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
There is a dichotomy in framing research that can be traced back to its multidisciplinary origins in psychology and sociology. Definitions of framing rooted in psychology are concerned ... More

Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics ... More

The Content and Effect of Political Advertising in U.S. Campaigns  

Matthew P. Motta and Erika Franklin Fowler

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Political advertising, especially negative advertising, is a prominent feature of contemporary political campaigns in the United States. Campaigns use advertising strategically to persuade ... More

The Decision to Vote or to Abstain  

Elisabeth Gidengil

Why voters turn out on Election Day has eluded a straightforward explanation. Rational choice theorists have proposed a parsimonious model, but its logical implication is that hardly ... More

Don't Expose Yourself: Discretionary Exposure to Political Information  

Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes

The news media have been disrupted. Broadcasting has given way to narrowcasting, editorial control to control by “friends” and personalization algorithms, and a few reputable producers to ... More

The Effects of Negative Advertising  

Conor M. Dowling and Yanna Krupnikov

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Since the 1960s there has been an increase in the amount of negative advertising in American campaigns. Although only 10% of advertisements aired in the 1960 campaign were negative, in the ... More

Expectancy Theory and the Election of Judges: Do Judicial Campaigns Really Stink?  

Michael J. Nelson and James L. Gibson

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Even though most judges in the United States stand for election in the context of strong normative objections to the practice of electing judges, political scientists have produced a ... More

Face Value: Facial Appearance and Assessments of Politicians  

Colleen M. Carpinella and Kerri L. Johnson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The facial appearance of political candidates provides information to voters that can be vital to the impression-formation process. Traditionally, psychological research in the field of ... More

From Crisis to Stasis: Media Dynamics and Issue Attention in the News  

Amber E. Boydstun and Annelise Russell

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Media coverage does not ebb and flow. Rather, media coverage rapidly moves from crisis to stasis and back again. The result of these attention dynamics is news reporting that is ... More

Gatekeeping and the Negativity Bias  

Stuart N. Soroka

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Research on media gatekeeping is focused on the factors leading to a distribution of information in media content that is systematically different from the “real world.” Early gatekeeping ... More

Going Public and Presidential Leadership  

Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Going public is the preeminent governing strategy of modern presidents. When presidents go public, they attempt to influence the decisions, actions, and opinions of others through ... More

The Indexing Model of State-Press Relations  

Steven Livingston

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
State-media-relations theory hopes to explain variability in news content in open media systems according to the effects of professional journalistic norms and political and economic ... More

Information and Civil Unrest in Dictatorships  

Elizabeth Ann Stein

Considering incidents that make headline news internationally, given the modern information and communication technology revolution, the facility of citizens to rapidly mobilize represents ... More

Information and Communication Technology, Transparency, and Accountability  

Catie Snow Bailard

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are rapidly, profoundly, and simultaneously changing three structural properties that define contemporary communication systems. How we ... More

Luhmann and Systems Theory  

Mathias Albert

The German sociologist Niklas Luhmann has provided one of the most elaborate theories of society available, as well as numerous works on specific aspects of society. Commonly labeled as ... More

The Market for Accountability Journalism  

James T. Hamilton

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. If most ... More

The Mass Media and the Policy Process  

Annelise Russell, Maraam Dwidar, and Bryan D. Jones

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Scholars across politics and communication have wrangled with questions aimed at better understanding issue salience and attention. For media scholars, they found that mass attention ... More

Media, Electoral Accountability, and Issue Voting  

Jennifer Jerit and Jason Barabas

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Issue voting concerns the extent to which citizens reward or punish elected officials for their actions or inaction on legislative issues. There are debates about styles of issue voting as ... More

Partisan Media and Polarization: Challenges for Future Work  

Matthew Levendusky

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Four potential mechanisms explore the linkages between partian media outlets and attitudinal polarization, as well as discusses how such outlets cause polarization and influence American ... More

The Personalization of Campaigns: Nonverbal Cues in Presidential Debates  

Erik P. Bucy and Patrick Stewart

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Nonverbal cues are important elements of persuasive communication whose influence in political debates are receiving renewed attention. Recent advances in political debate research have ... More

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