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Implicit Memory and Cognitive Aging  

Emma V. Ward and David R. Shanks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Please check back later for the full article. It is ... More

Influence of Anxiety on Cognitive Control Processes  

DeMond M. Grant and Evan J. White

Cognitive control is the ability to direct attention and cognitive resources toward achieving one’s goals. However, research indicates that anxiety biases multiple cognitive processes, ... More

Language Acquisition  

Erica H. Wojcik, Irene de la Cruz-Pavía, and Janet F. Werker

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Language is a structured form of communication that is unique to humans. Within the first few years of life, typically developing children can understand and produce full sentences in ... More

Life Space in Older Adults  

Markus Wettstein, Hans-Werner Wahl, and Michael Schwenk

When referring to life space, researchers usually mean the area in which individuals move in their everyday lives. Life space can be measured based on different approaches, by means of ... More

Memory Rehabilitation in Healthy Aging  

Nicole D. Anderson

Healthy aging is accompanied by decrements in episodic memory and working memory. Significant efforts have therefore been made to augment episodic and working memory in healthy older ... More

Metamemory and Cognitive Aging  

Christopher Hertzog and Taylor Curley

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Metamemory is defined as cognitions about memory and related processes. Related terms in the literature include metacognition, self-evaluation, memory self-efficacy, executive function, ... More

Object Perception  

Scott P. Johnson

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Visual scenes tend to be very complex: a multitude of overlapping surfaces varying in shape, color, texture, and depth relative to the observer. Yet most observers effortlessly perceive ... More

Physical Activity and Inactivity Impacts on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Later Life  

Patrick D. Gajewski and Michael Falkenstein

Healthy aging is associated with changes in sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Such changes depend on various factors. In particular, physical activity not only improves ... More

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition  

Jennifer L. Etnier

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
There is substantial interest in identifying the behavioral means by which to improve cognitive performance. Recent research and commercial ventures have focused on cognitive training ... More

Psychological Responses to Scarcity  

Jiaying Zhao and Brandon M. Tomm

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Scarcity is the condition of having insufficient resources to cope with demands. This condition presents significant challenges to the human cognitive system. For example, having limited ... More

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