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Religion and Spirituality in Sport  

Ivo Jirásek

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Please check back later for the full article. Human ... More

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology  

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Research methods in sport and exercise psychology are embedded in the domain’s network of methodological assumptions, historical traditions, and research themes. Sport and exercise ... More

Retirement  

Mo Wang and Valeria Alterman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Retirement, defined as an individual’s exit from the workforce, is usually accompanied by a behavioral withdrawal from work. While retirement was seen as a crisis in the past, it now ... More

The Role of Mental Processes in Elite Sports Performance  

Joan N. Vickers and A. Mark Williams

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Considerable debate has arisen about whether brain activity in elite athletes is characterized by an overall quieting, or neural efficiency in brain processes, or whether elite performance ... More

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications  

Chun-Jung Huang, Matthew J. McAllister, and Aaron L. Slusher

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Psychological stress disorders, such as depression and chronic anxiety contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Acute psychological and physical stress ... More

Schema Therapy With Older Adults  

A.C. Videler

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Schema therapy has evolved since the late 1980s as an efficacious and increasingly widely used psychotherapeutic treatment for personality disorders and many other complex disorders that ... More

Schools and Approaches to Psychotherapy  

Kathleen Someah, Christopher Edwards, and Larry E. Beutler

There are many approaches to psychotherapy, commonly called “schools” or “theories.” These schools range from psychoanalytic, to variations of insight- and conflict-based approaches, ... More

Self and Identity  

Sanaz Talaifar and William Swann

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Active and stored mental representations of the self include both global and specific qualities as well as conscious and nonconscious qualities. Semantic and episodic memory both ... More

Self-Talk in Sport and Performance  

Judy L. Van Raalte and Andrew Vincent

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Self-talk has been studied from the earliest days of research in experimental psychology. In sport psychology, the cognitive revolution of the 1970s led researchers and practitioners to ... More

The Social Brain Hypothesis and Human Evolution  

Robin I. M. Dunbar

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Primate societies are unusually complex compared to those of other animals, and the need to manage such complexity is the main explanation for the fact that primates have unusually large ... More

Social Categorization  

Craig McGarty

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Categorization is a process whereby we make sense of the world around us by separating things into different classes or groups. When we learn which categories that objects belong to, we ... More

Social Comparison  

Zlatan Krizan

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Social comparison activity is one of the most important spheres of human functioning; it is necessary for appraising where one stands within his or her community and for establishing ... More

Social Psychology and Language  

Susan Baker, Bernadette Watson, and Cindy Gallois

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Social Relationships Across Adulthood and Old Age  

Cornelia Wrzus and Jenny Wagner

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Over the entire life span, social relationships are essential ingredients of human life. Social relationships describe regular interactions with other people over a certain period and ... More

Sociocultural Aspects of Sport Injury and Recovery  

Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The sociocultural aspects of sport injury and recovery include the broad landscape of social beliefs, climates, processes, cultures, institutions, and societies that surround the full ... More

Spatial Development  

Jeffrey J. Lockman, Nicholas E. Fears, and Emily A. Lewis

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Spatial ability is manifest across different psychological domains, including perception, action, and cognition. The development of spatial understanding originates in the ... More

Specific Language Impairment  

Laurence B. Leonard

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant deficit in their ability to acquire language that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, neurological damage, ... More

Speech Comprehension and Cognition in Adult Aging  

Nicole D. Ayasse, Alexis R. Johns, and Arthur Wingfield

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The comprehension of spoken language is a complex skill that requires the listener to map the acoustic input onto the meaningful units of speech (phonemes, syllables, and words). At the ... More

Statistical Mediation in Lifespan Developmental Analyses  

Oscar Gonzalez and David P. MacKinnon

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Lifespan developmental research studies how individuals change throughout their lifetime and how intraindividual or interindividual change leads to future outcomes. Lifespan researchers ... More

Stigma and Health  

Katherine Nieweglowski and Patrick W. Corrigan

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Stigma is a complex process that results from the interaction of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. When applied to health conditions (e.g., mental illness, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, ... More

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