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Jātaka  

Naomi Appleton

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Subject:
Buddhism
A jātaka story narrates an episode in a past life of the Buddha. Such tales are found in a variety of Buddhist texts, the largest and best known of which is the Jātakatthavaṇṇanā, a ... More

Jebtsundamba Khutugtus of Mongolia  

Agata Bareja-Starzyńska

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Buddhist reincarnations, stemming from the Tibetan term rJe btsun dam pa (“Holy Precious Master”) in the 17th century after fourteen previous rebirths in India and Tibet, appeared in ... More

Jesus Christ in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Johannes Zachhuber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s theology is strongly Christocentric, but Christology is rarely the central focus of his writings. In some of his most considered summaries of his own faith, he presents ... More

Jewish Liturgy  

Ruth Langer

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jewish liturgy is a complex phenomenon, manifesting change over time and place as well as some significant diversity today. Today’s prayers emerged from the rituals of the rabbis of the ... More

Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought and History  

Asma Afsaruddin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In both popular and scholarly literature, jihad is primarily assumed to be a monovalent concept referring to “military/armed combat,” and martyrdom (shahada) is inevitably understood to be ... More

Johannes von Staupitz’s Influence on Martin Luther  

Franz Posset

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The impact of Johannes von Staupitz (c. 1468–1524) on Martin Luther can hardly be overestimated. Staupitz was elected vicar general of the reformed Augustinian Order in 1503. Between 1504 ... More

Judaism and Visual Art  

Melissa Raphael

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Until the late 20th century, it was widely assumed that visual art could be of only negligible significance to a Jewish tradition that had been principally mediated through written texts. ... More

The Judeo-Christian and Abrahamic Traditions in America  

K. Healan Gaston

The terms “Judeo-Christian” and “Abrahamic” are collective religious descriptors that identify points of theological, historical, and ethical commonality between the world’s largest ... More

Law in Doctrine and Life According to Martin Luther  

Risto Saarinen and Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The law both is and functions in Martin Luther’s theology. To the extent that it simply is, the law is wholly good, just, and pure. It reveals God’s benevolent providence for creation by ... More

Law, the U.S. Supreme Court, and Religion  

Derek H. Davis

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The United States Supreme Court’s religion jurisprudence is typically analyzed based on whether a court’s decision emerges from an Establishment Clause analysis or a Free Exercise Clause ... More

Liberalism in American Religious History  

Matthew S. Hedstrom

Liberalism describes an interrelated set of political and religious frameworks that grew out of the Enlightenment and the English, American, and French revolutions, though the term itself ... More

Liberation Theologies in America  

Craig L. Nessan

Liberation theologies employ action-reflection (praxis-oriented) methodologies in response to particular forms of oppression, normally consisting of five elements: 1) identification with ... More

Liturgical Theology  

Joris Geldhof

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Liturgical theology studies the meaning of Christian worship. Although it is a relatively recent approach, it is solidly anchored in the Christian tradition. Its present shape, fame, and ... More

Liturgical Vestments, Vessels, and Objects in Christian Worship  

Joanne M. Pierce

Online publication date:
May 2018
Any history of Christian liturgy must address the origins and development of the various material elements that are used during these celebrations. These have their own specific history, ... More

Liturgy and Music at Hagia Sophia  

Bissera V. Pentcheva

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Hagia Sophia, the former Orthodox Christian cathedral of Constantinople, is the single most important monument that survives from Byzantium. Its daring architecture of cascading dome and ... More

Lived Ancient Religions  

Jörg Rüpke

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
“Lived ancient religion” offers a new perspective on ancient religion. It shares the priority on ritual of many studies from the late 19th century onward but reconstructs ancient religion ... More

Martin Luther and Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism  

Christopher Ocker

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The uncomfortable question of Martin Luther’s place in the development of modern anti-Semitism is raised by Luther’s status as a national cultural icon after German unification (1871) and ... More

Luther, Lutheranism, and Post-Christianity  

Daphne Hampson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
It would not be possible to say that the Lutheran tradition has led to the post-Christian world that is Europe today, the causes of which must be multifarious. Nevertheless, it is thinkers ... More

Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, and Their Wittenberg Colleagues  

Timothy J. Wengert

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The German Reformation, sparked by the publication of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses in 1517, unfolded parallel to another intellectual phenomenon then sweeping centers of higher education ... More

Martin Luther on Marriage and the Family  

Merry Wiesner-Hanks

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Marriage was at the heart of Martin Luther’s break with Rome and the Reformation that followed. He preached sermons praising marriage beginning in 1519 and several years later wrote his ... More

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