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The Anabaptist Tradition: Mennonites  

John D. Rempel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Anabaptism and its descendant movement, Mennonitism, came into being through the illegal baptism of believers upon confession of faith. Anabaptist worship was characterized by form and ... More

Apocalypticism in U.S. History  

Matthew Avery Sutton

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Apocalypticism has had a powerful impact on American life. It has fostered among adherents a strong sense of purpose and personal identity, it has helped them interpret the challenges they ... More

Bibles and Tracts in Print Culture in America  

Lincoln A. Mullen

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Since the first printing presses were established in Britain’s North American colonies, print was a ubiquitous feature of American religion. Print was a powerful means of communicating ... More

The Book of Isaiah  

J. Blake Couey

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The book of Isaiah is a compilation of prophetic poetry and narratives, named for an 8th-century bce Judahite prophet. As depicted in chapters 1–39, Isaiah declared that Yhwh intended to ... More

Desire, Love, and Romance in the Hebrew Bible  

J. Cheryl Exum

In the Hebrew Bible human sexual desire is, for the most part, constructed as male and as dangerous. In the patriarchal economy of ancient Israel, in which women were subordinated to men ... More

Egypt in the Old Testament  

Christopher Hays

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The relationship between Egypt and ancient Israel and Judah was far more complex than is often recognized. Egypt figures prominently in their national myths of origin as a way station for ... More

God in the Old Testament  

Brent A. Strawn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Please check back later for the full article. The God ... More

History of Ancient Israel  

H. G. M. Williamson

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The history of ancient Israel is best known to most people from the narratives in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. There, however, the name “Israel” covers a wide diversity of social and ... More

Martin Luther and Christian Hebraism  

Stephen G. Burnett

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Christian Hebraism was a facet of Renaissance humanism. Biblical scholars, theologians, lawyers, physicians, astronomers, philosophers, and teachers in Latin schools sought to learn Hebrew ... More

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther’s exposition of the Bible was not only fundamental to his academic vocation, it also stood at the very center of his reforming work. Through his interpretation of the New ... More

Martin Luther's Practice of Old Testament Commentary  

John A. Maxfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Scholarly analysis of biblical interpretation and commentary in the history of Christianity has become an important subfield in history as well as biblical studies and theology. From the ... More

Moral Agency in the Hebrew Bible  

Anne W. Stewart

Do humans have a will capable of choosing the good, doing the good, and evaluating the good? These are the central questions of moral agency, the notion that humans can be morally ... More

The Pentateuch  

Thomas B. Dozeman

The Pentateuch (“five books”) is the title for the first five books of the Bible in the Greek translation, known as the Septuagint (LXX). The more original title is the Hebrew, Torah, ... More

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible  

Jack R. Lundbom

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Prophets” in the ancient world were individuals said to possess an intimate association with God or the gods, and conducted the business of transmitting messages between the divine and ... More

The Book of Revelation: The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The Revelation of Jesus Christ, or the Apocalypse of John, has been extraordinarily influential in Christian life and theology. For example, because of the many hymns sung by the heavenly ... More

Ugaritic and Biblical Literature  

Mark S. Smith

The Ugaritic texts provide a rich resource for understanding the Late Bronze Age kingdom of Ugarit, located on the coast of Syria. The site has yielded about two thousand tablets in ... More

Violence in the Old Testament  

Jerome F. D. Creach

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
“Violence in the Old Testament” may refer generally to the Old Testament’s descriptions of God or human beings killing, destroying, and doing physical harm. As part of the activity of God, ... More

William Blake and the Apocalypse  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
William Blake (1757–1827) was a British artist, engraver, poet, and writer on theological themes. His illuminated books were the product of his technological inventiveness, and are ... More

Women in Ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible  

Susan Ackerman

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The Hebrew Bible is a book that was primarily written by men, for men, and about men, and thus the biblical text is not particularly forthcoming when it comes to the lives and experiences ... More

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