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The Book of Isaiah  

J. Blake Couey

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The book of Isaiah is a compilation of prophetic poetry and narratives, named for an 8th-century bce Judahite prophet. As depicted in chapters 1–39, Isaiah declared that Yhwh intended to ... More

Desire, Love, and Romance in the Hebrew Bible  

J. Cheryl Exum

In the Hebrew Bible human sexual desire is, for the most part, constructed as male and as dangerous. In the patriarchal economy of ancient Israel, in which women were subordinated to men ... More

The Eruv as Contested Jewish Space in North America  

Myer Siemiatycki

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The eruv is perhaps the most creative, confounding, and contested spatial construct in Judaism. Territorially, it demarcates the urban space within which prohibitions otherwise attached to ... More

God in the Old Testament  

Brent A. Strawn

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Please check back later for the full article. The God ... More

History of Ancient Israel  

H. G. M. Williamson

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The history of ancient Israel is best known to most people from the narratives in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. There, however, the name “Israel” covers a wide diversity of social and ... More

Jewish Liturgy  

Ruth Langer

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jewish liturgy is a complex phenomenon, manifesting change over time and place as well as some significant diversity today. Today’s prayers emerged from the rituals of the rabbis of the ... More

Judaism and Visual Art  

Melissa Raphael

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Until the late 20th century, it was widely assumed that visual art could be of only negligible significance to a Jewish tradition that had been principally mediated through written texts. ... More

The Judeo-Christian and Abrahamic Traditions in America  

K. Healan Gaston

The terms “Judeo-Christian” and “Abrahamic” are collective religious descriptors that identify points of theological, historical, and ethical commonality between the world’s largest ... More

Martin Luther and Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism  

Christopher Ocker

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The uncomfortable question of Martin Luther’s place in the development of modern anti-Semitism is raised by Luther’s status as a national cultural icon after German unification (1871) and ... More

Martin Luther and Christian Hebraism  

Stephen G. Burnett

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Christian Hebraism was a facet of Renaissance humanism. Biblical scholars, theologians, lawyers, physicians, astronomers, philosophers, and teachers in Latin schools sought to learn Hebrew ... More

Martin Luther, Jews, and Judaism  

Dorothea Wendebourg

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Martin Luther was engaged with the topic “Jews and Judaism” all his life, from his earliest works until his last. The main context for his preoccupation with this topic was interpretation ... More

Moral Agency in the Hebrew Bible  

Anne W. Stewart

Do humans have a will capable of choosing the good, doing the good, and evaluating the good? These are the central questions of moral agency, the notion that humans can be morally ... More

Muslim-Jewish Relations  

Reuven Firestone

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Muslim-Jewish relations began with the emergence of Islam in 7th-century Arabia, but contacts between pre-Jewish Israelites and pre-Muslim Arabs had been common for nearly two millennia ... More

The Pentateuch  

Thomas B. Dozeman

The Pentateuch (“five books”) is the title for the first five books of the Bible in the Greek translation, known as the Septuagint (LXX). The more original title is the Hebrew, Torah, ... More

Primitivism in America  

Matthew Bowman

Historians most often use the term primitivism to refer to the attempt to reconstruct a religious tradition’s original theology, structure, or beliefs. Primitivists believe that the ... More

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible  

Jack R. Lundbom

Online publication date:
May 2016
“Prophets” in the ancient world were individuals said to possess an intimate association with God or the gods, and conducted the business of transmitting messages between the divine and ... More

Race and American Judaism  

Samira K. Mehta

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Jews in America have had a complex relationship to race. At times, they have been described as a racial minority, whereas at other times, they have been able to assimilate into the white ... More

Ugaritic and Biblical Literature  

Mark S. Smith

The Ugaritic texts provide a rich resource for understanding the Late Bronze Age kingdom of Ugarit, located on the coast of Syria. The site has yielded about two thousand tablets in ... More

America’s Interactions with Islam and Judaism in North Africa  

Lawrence A. Peskin

Encounters between Americans, Muslims, and Jews in North Africa played a foundational role in Americans’ early understanding of Islam and Judaism. At a time when the United States ... More

Violence in the Old Testament  

Jerome F. D. Creach

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
“Violence in the Old Testament” may refer generally to the Old Testament’s descriptions of God or human beings killing, destroying, and doing physical harm. As part of the activity of God, ... More

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