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The Age of Revolutions  

Conrad L. Donakowski

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
A variety of economic, ideological, aesthetic, and nationalist forces shape Christian worship in its varied manifestations today. Historical perspectives and areas of knowledge which are ... More

The Anabaptist Tradition: Mennonites  

John D. Rempel

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Anabaptism and its descendant movement, Mennonitism, came into being through the illegal baptism of believers upon confession of faith. Anabaptist worship was characterized by form and ... More

Baptist Worship in Britain  

Christopher J. Ellis

Online publication date:
May 2018
Baptists stand within the Free Church and Evangelical traditions. They baptize only those who profess personal faith, and they also give a high priority to evangelism. Although there is ... More

Christian Initiation  

Maxwell Johnson

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
“Christian initiation” refers to the ritual process employed by various churches in forming new Christian converts through catechesis (instruction) during the “catechumenate” to baptism, ... More

Christian Liturgical Music  

William T. Flynn

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Music in its widest definition (sound and silence organized in time) is never absent from Christian worship. The diversity of styles and forms employed both chronologically and ... More

Christian Marriage and Funeral Services as Rites of Passage  

Ruth A. Meyers

Online publication date:
May 2016
Weddings and funerals mark major transitions in human life. In these rites of passage, which effect a transformation from one status to another, an individual is separated from one state ... More

The “Classic” Age of Christian Worship, 4th–6th Century  

John F. Baldovin

Online publication date:
May 2018
The 4th–6th centuries can be considered a classic period in the development of Christian worship. During this time many of the liturgical forms that are still recognizable today were ... More

The Development of the “Apostolic Tradition” in Early Christian Worship  

Maxwell E. Johnson

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Contrary to the assumptions often held by previous scholars, contemporary liturgical scholarship is coming increasingly to realize and emphasize that Christian worship was diverse even in ... More

Early Christian Worship  

Paul F. Bradshaw

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
The forms of Christian worship changed and developed considerably during the first four centuries of its existence, not least from a distinctive local or regional diversity to an ... More

Festivals in Ancient Greece and Rome  

Fritz Graf

Online publication date:
May 2016
Festivals are periods of time, cut out from daily life, during which a group performs activities that are most often thought of as communications with the superhuman world. Festival names ... More

Homa: Tantric Fire Ritual  

Richard K. Payne

The homa is a votive offering involving the construction of a fire in a hearth-altar, and the immolation of offerings in the fire. The altar is homologized with a mandala, and as with ... More

Jewish Liturgy  

Ruth Langer

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jewish liturgy is a complex phenomenon, manifesting change over time and place as well as some significant diversity today. Today’s prayers emerged from the rituals of the rabbis of the ... More

Liturgical Vestments, Vessels, and Objects in Christian Worship  

Joanne M. Pierce

Online publication date:
May 2018
Any history of Christian liturgy must address the origins and development of the various material elements that are used during these celebrations. These have their own specific history, ... More

Mahāmudrā in India and Tibet  

Roger R. Jackson

Mahāmudrā, “the Great Seal,” is a Sanskrit term (Tibetan: phyag rgya chen po) that connotes a wide range of concepts and practices in Indian Mahāyāna and, especially, Tibetan ... More

Mainline of the Protestant Worship in Latin America  

Wilhelm Wachholz

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The Latin American Christian worship service celebrated in most of Latin America until the beginning of the 19th century was Catholic, particularly the one that was prior to the Catholic ... More

Material Culture and Embodiment in American Religion  

David Morgan

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
In recent years, the study of religion has undergone a useful materialization in the work of many scholars, who are not inclined to define it in terms of ideas, creeds, or doctrines alone, ... More

Medieval Christian Liturgy  

Joanne M. Pierce

Online publication date:
May 2016
The liturgy of the medieval Christian West (ca. 600–1500) provided the structure around which life in Western Europe was structured for almost a thousand years. Rooted in Christian ... More

Memorialization and Religion in America  

Adam M. Ware

Monuments, memorials, and museums mark America’s landscape and define both the purpose of spaces and the actors who inhabit them. From the earliest colonial encounters to the new age of ... More

Modern Yoga  

Andrea Jain

Modern yoga refers to a variety of systems that developed as early as the 19th century as a consequence of capitalist production, colonial and industrial endeavors, global developments in ... More

Online Media and Religion in America  

Adam Bajan and Heidi A. Campbell

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
New and emerging media has played a pivotal role in Christianity throughout history. In early times, the Christian message was disseminated directly from Jesus and his followers to growing ... More

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