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Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era  

Sophie Dulucq

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
African History
In the second half of the 19th century, French imperial expansion in the south of the Sahara led to the control of numerous African territories. The colonial rule France imposed on a ... More

US Foreign Policy in the Reagan Presidency  

Simon Miles

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
American History
Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy legacy remains hotly contested, and as new archival sources come to light, those debates are more likely to intensify than to recede into the background. In ... More

Urban Charter Schools  

Manya Whitaker

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Education
Urban charter schools are public schools located in major metropolitan areas with high population densities. The majority of urban charter school students identify as Black or Latinx and ... More

United States Foreign Economic Aid  

Jeffrey F. Taffet

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
American History
In the first half of the 20th century, and more actively in the post–World War II period, the United States government used economic aid programs to advance its foreign policy interests. ... More

Uncertainty Quantification in Multi-Model Ensembles  

Benjamin Mark Sanderson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Long-term planning for many sectors of society—including infrastructure, human health, agriculture, food security, water supply, insurance, conflict, and migration—requires an assessment ... More

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources  

Adam Jones

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
African History
Accounts written by foreigners—especially Europeans—about what they saw in Africa constitute one of the major sources for African history between c. 1450 and c. 1900. Some were published, ... More

Time Preferences for Health  

Marjon van der Pol and Alastair Irvine

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economics and Finance
The interest in eliciting time preferences for health has increased rapidly since the early 1990s. It has two main sources: a concern over the appropriate methods for taking timing into ... More

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Anatomy, Physiology, and Neurochemistry  

Rae Silver

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Neuroscience
We live in an approximately 24-hour world and circadian rhythms have evolved to adapt organisms to the opportunities presented by Earth’s 24-hour cycle of light and dark. A “master clock” ... More

Subjective Aging and Health  

Gerben J. Westerhof and Susanne Wurm

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Psychology
Aging is often associated with inevitable biological decline. Yet research suggests that subjective aging—the views that people have about their own age and aging—contributes to how long ... More

Stereotype Measurement in Political Decision Making  

Angela L. Bos, Heather Madonia, and Monica C. Schneider

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Stereotypes are a set of beliefs a person holds about the personal attributes of a group of people. The beliefs are commonly held and understood, which allows people to use them as ... More

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