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Martin Luther’s Catechisms  

Ninna Jørgensen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Catechisms The Lay Folk’s Minimum: Learned Theologians as Agents of a Catechetical Syllabus Sermons on catechetical “elements” had been prescribed, if not necessarily put in practice, since the early Middle Ages. In 789, Charlemagne issued a capitulary generally known as “Admonitio generalis,” in which he ordered that “The Catholic faith be read diligently by the bishops and priests and preached to the people.” 1 Moreover, bishops were ordered to examine the clergy’s understanding of baptism, Mass, and doctrine, as well as their ability...

Portrayals of Martin Luther in Print, Stage and Film  

Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...in the 1930s. Anti-German sentiment during the 1930s and 1940s necessitated a delay in its publication, however. 53. Michael Mullett , Martin Luther (New York: Routledge, 2004), 264. 54. Volker Leppin , Martin Luther (Darmstadt, Germany: Primus Verlag, 2006). 55. Martin Brecht , Martin Luther , 3 vols., trans. James L. Schaaf (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1985–1989). 56. Kolb, Martin Luther as Prophet , 121–122. 57. Kolb, Martin Luther as Prophet , 124. 58. Kolb, Martin Luther as Prophet , 124. 59. Johannes Schilling , “Luther in der Litteratur...

Baptism in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Kirsi Stjerna

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...primarily the Large Catechism is engaged, in agreement with Lorenz Grönvik’s conclusions on the continuity in Luther’s baptismal argumentation. See Lorenz Grönvik , Die Taufe in der Theologie Martin Luthers (Åbo: Åbo Akademi, 1967). 2. For an insightful essay, see Jane E. Strohl , “Luther’s Spiritual Journey,” in The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther , ed. Donald K. McKim (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 149–164. 3. See Dirk Lange , “Introduction,” The Holy, and Blessed Sacrament of Baptism (1519), in The Annotated Luther , Vol. 1 (Mi...

Martin Luther in North America  

Mark A. Granquist

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Perceptions of Martin Luther in American Culture,” is an attempt to survey the influence and perceptions of Luther in American popular culture; 14 though limited in its scope, there is not much else written on this aspect of the subject. George Robbert's 1965 article, “A Checklist of Luther’s Writings in English,” gives valuable bibliographic detail on translations of Luther’s works into English up to 1965 . 15 The 1982 monograph by Arthur Repp, Sr., Luther’s Catechism Comes to America: Theological Effects on the Issues of the Small Catechism Prepared in or...

Martin Luther’s Sermons and Postils  

John M. Frymire

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...or (more rarely) the catechism. During the week, morning services were especially important for students, who heard sermons on the catechism (Monday–Tuesday), Matthew (Wednesday), Epistles (Thursday–Friday), and John’s Gospel (Saturday). 44 This schedule allowed Luther to interpret the standard pericopes regularly and, at the same time, to offer sermons on those biblical books especially important to him. Sometimes Luther gave catechism sermon series lasting two weeks (four sermons per week). In 1528 he announced from his pulpit that catechism preaching would commence...

Martin Luther in Finland and the Baltics  

Antti Raunio

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Lutheran catechism in Estonian from the year 1535 . Literature does not tell quite clearly if it was Luther’s “Small Catechism” but in any case it was based on Luther’s teachings. However, the edition was destroyed soon after the publication. Only one partially preserved copy has been found. Heinrich Stahl published a new version of the Lutheran catechism in Estonian in 1632 . 21 In Latvian, the catechism was published for the first time in 1586 . The first printed book in Lithuanian is the Lutheran Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas in 1547 . It follows Luther’s teachings...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...throughout Luther’s lifetime, confined itself almost entirely to biblical texts. In Luther’s vision, the hymnal and prayer book functioned alongside the Bible (and in a few years the catechism as well) as the foundation of lay piety. 64 With the death of the elector Frederick in May 1525 , the political history of the Reformation also entered a new stage. The protection and advancement of Luther and his movement were clearly no longer the matter of the personal disposition of a single prince. Luther’s Reformation had arrived. Review of the Literature Martin Brecht’s standard...

Martin Luther’s Life, 1526–1546  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...For a theological evaluation of Luther’s catechisms, see Albrecht Peters’s five-volume study Kommentar zu Luthers Katechismen (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990–1994), also available in a five-volume English translation as Commentary on Luther’s Catechisms (Saint Louis, MO: Concordia, 2009–2013). 26. To this point, see Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert , eds., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000), 378. 27. See Heiko A. Oberman , Luther: Man Between God and the Devil...

Martin Luther on Prayer in Life  

Mary Jane Haemig

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Press, 1955. Vajta, Vilmos . “Luther als Beter.” In Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546: Festgabe zu seinem 500. Geburtstag . Edited by Helmar Junghans . Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983. Wengert, Timothy . “Luther on Prayer in the Large Catechism.” In The Pastoral Luther: Essays on Martin Luther’s Practical Theology . Edited by Timothy J. Wengert , 171–197. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009. Wertelius, Gunnar . Oratio Continua: Das Verhältnis zwischen Glaube und Gebet in der Theologie Martin Luthers . Lund, Sweden: CWK Gleerup, 1970...

Martin Luther on the Church and Its Ministry  

Cheryl M. Peterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...hia: Fortress, 1960), 14 (author’s emphasis). 26. “Answer to the Hyperchristian, Hyperspiritual and Hyperlearned Book by Goat Emser in Leipzig—including some thoughts regarding his companion, the Fool Murner” (1521), in LW 39:139–224. 27. LW 39:159 (author’s emphasis). 28. LW 39:182–183. 29. LW 39:182. 30. LW 39:218 (author’s emphasis). 31. LW 39:222. 32. For example, see Gerhard Forde , “Law and Gospel in Luther’s Hermeneutic,” Interpretation 37 (1983): 240–252. 33. Martin Luther , The Large Catechism , in The Book of Concord: The Confessions...

Martin Luther in the Eyes of His Roman Catholic Opponents  

Jared Wicks

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...confusion, and mourning, Luther disregarded all these things and married a nun . . . which was a sacrilegious form of incest and vow-breaking, and was polluted by the deaths of so many thousands.” 61 Inter-Lutheran discord was so great that Luther’s catechisms of 1529 gave accounts of the Decalogue, Lord’s Prayer, and Apostles’ Creed, but “very differently than he had done ten years previously”—after which a storm of discordant catechisms rained down on Protestant lands. 62 Cochlaeus, living in distant Breslau, had no special news about Luther’s death, so he noted that...

Martin Luther in the Age of Confessionalization  

Jens Wolff

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...of the New Church. Luther often was monocausally depicted as the one and only theologian who caused the Reformation and the beginning confessional age. Seckendorff, for example, spared Zwingli and Calvin when he depicted the Protestant churches. 5 The Luther-centric fixation of historians was common. This overlooks the political and theological affinity between the Protestant confessions. For example, there is a deep theological accordance between Calvin’s Institutio and the Catechism of Luther, and—as already mentioned—Zwingli also shared Luther’s theology until the...

Martin Luther on Grace  

Hans Wiersma

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...others will benefit from a more thorough investigation of Luther’s plentiful reflections informed by this unique phrase: “to have a gracious God.” For the sake of inspiring such investigations, this section concludes with a look at what Luther’s conception of grace looks like. In 1529 , the studio of Lucas Cranach the Elder, Wittenberg’s famed artist and Luther’s neighbor, produced a work presently known in English as “Law and Grace.” Completed in the same year that Luther’s Catechisms were published, Cranach’s Gesetz und Gnade (“Law and Grace”) illustrates the ...

Martin Luther in the German Enlightenment  

Albrecht Beutel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 3. 102. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 33. 103. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 64–65. 104. Cf. Ibid. 105. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 69. 106. Ibid. 107. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 71. 108. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 74. 109. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 9. 110. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 76. 111. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 86. 112. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 80. 113. Cf. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 93, 104–105, and more. 114. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 100. 115. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 101. 116. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 89...

Martin Luther’s Writings  

Robert Kolb

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

..., Preaching, and Catechesis on Luther,” in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology , eds. Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomir Batka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 449–461; Ronald K. Rittgers, “How Luther’s Engagement in Pastoral Care Shaped his Theology,” ibid. , 462–470; Anna Vind, “Luther’s Thought Assumed Form in Polemics,” ibid. , 471–480; Christoph Burger, “Luther’s Thought Took Shape in Translation of Scripture and Hymns,” ibid. , 481–488; and Christine Helmer , The Trinity and Martin Luther: a Study on the Relationship between...

The Distinction between Law and Gospel in Martin Luther’s Theological Development  

Charles P. Arand

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...LW 31, 327–377; WA 7, 1–73. Luther, Martin . “Personal Prayer Book.” 1522. LW 43, 47–55. WA 10 II, 322–326. Luther, Martin . “Luther’s Small and Large Catechisms.” In The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Edited by Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert , 347–480. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000. Luther, Martin . “Lectures on Galatians, 1–4.” 1535. LW 26:1–461; WA 40/I:40–688. Luther, Martin . “Smalcald Articles.” 1537. In BC 296–328. Luther, Martin . Preface to the Complete Edition of Luther’s Latin Writings. 1545. LW 34:323–338;...

Martin Luther’s Treatises and Essays  

Mark D. Tranvik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Understanding Martin Luther’s Demonological Rhetoric in His Treatise against the Heavenly Prophets (1525) . Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen, 2010. Rosin, Robert . “Humanism, Luther, and the Wittenberg Reformation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology . Edited by Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomír Batka , 91–104. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Stolt, Birgit . “Luther’s Faith of the Heart: Experience, Emotion and Reason.” In The Global Luther . Edited by Christine Helmer , 131–150. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009. Vind, Anna . “Luther’s Thought...

Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper  

R. David Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...to consult Köhler’s massive study of Luther and Zwingli, which is unsurpassed for its detailed exposition of the political and theological issues surrounding the Colloquy. 51 A handful of significant monographs focus on the development of Luther’s teaching on the Lord’s Supper against the background of his complicated relationship with the contemporaneous Catholic church. Albrecht Peters, well-known for his comprehensive research on Luther’s Catechisms, produced a brief but important study in this vein on the theme of real presence in Luther’s theology. 52 The work...

Martin Luther’s Sacramental Theology  

Gordon A. Jensen

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Heritage, 2008) . 2. Bernhard Lohse , Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development , trans. and ed. Roy A. Harrisville (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999), 299. 3. Hans-Martin Barth , The Theology of Martin Luther: A Critical Assessment (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2013), 223–224 . See also Albrecht Peters , Baptism and Lord’s Supper: Commentary on Luther’s Catechisms , trans. Thomas H. Trapp (Saint Louis, MO: Concordia, 2012), 51 . 4. Oswald Bayer , “Die Reformatorische Wende in Luthers Theologie,” Zeitschrift für Theologie und Werke...

Martin Luther in Denmark  

Niels Henrik Gregersen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...the “vocations” of everyday life. For more than 300 years, Luther’s doctrine of the three estates has probably been more formative for Danish culture than his doctrine of the two kingdoms. However, when bishop C. F. Balslev wrote a brief explanation of Luther’s catechism in 1849 (with no fewer than 351 printings/editions), Luther’s Haustafel was left out. Increasingly, Luther was now a name associated with the church rather than with the ordinary life of shoemakers, schoolteachers, and households. Luther in Golden Age Denmark By 1800 various forms of rationalism...

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