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Martin Luther’s Doctrine of Creation  

Johannes Schwanke

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Doctrine of Creation Creation Creation and Individuality “I Believe That God Has Created Me”—Luthers Focus against Generalizations The starting point and core of Luther’s theology of creation can be found in his famous explanation of the first article in the “Small Catechism.” Speaking about creation, naturally, the immediate world surrounding oneself comes first into view. Therefore, Luther’s reflection on creation begins with the creation of himself: I believe that God has created me together with all creatures...

Martin Luther, History, and Its Meaning  

Curtis L. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...1983), 100, 234n34. 12. Gritsch, Martin—God’s Court Jester , 100. Gritsch refers to the “Reckoning” of 1541, WA 53:22. 13. Gritsch, Martin—God’s Court Jester , 101. 14. Gritsch, Martin—God’s Court Jester , 99. 15. Headley, Luther’s View of Church History , 267. 16. Headley, Luther’s View of Church History , 68. 17. Oswald Bayer , Martin Luther’s Theology: A Contemporary Interpretation , trans. Thomas H. Trapp (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007), 311. On this point Boyer refers to Heinrich Bornkamm , Luther’s Doctrine of the Two Kingdom , trans. Karl H...

Martin Luther’s Perspectival Eschatology  

Vítor Westhelle

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...three main figures of the Reformation—Luther, Bucer, and Calvin—in terms of the three cardinal virtues, faith, love, and hope, respectively. While Pflanz’s book was barelt noticed in the field, Torrance’s was largely criticized for its one-sidedness in presenting Luther’s eschatology. In 1967 the first substantial monography about Luther’s eschatology was published, Ulrich Asendorf’s Eschatologie bei Luther . 100 The book is divided into three main sections that discuss eschatology in Luther as it relates to and emerges out of the doctrines of justification, e...

Martin Luther and Systematic Theology  

Paul R. Hinlicky

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther and Systematic Theology Problematizing Theology Among other things, Martin Luther was an academic theologian, making contributions to the production of Christian doctrine, 1 especially in Christology. 2 He did so from the hermeneutical perspective of Renaissance humanism’s prioritization of “rhetoric” over “dialectic”; 3 thus his academic work was devoted first of all to exegesis of the sources of theology in Scripture and the patristic witness: the Bible and his “blessed Augustine.” 4 This hermeneutical turn, however, remains an...

Martin Luther’s Life, 1526–1546  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Since the Luther renaissance of the early 20th century, the drama of the young Luther’s story has tended to overshadow the work of the older man, particularly in the years after his lectures on Galatians. Some more recent studies, however, draw attention to the continuing creativity found in the theology and exegesis of the elder Luther. The work of Forsberg was crucial for its focus on the Genesis lectures for understanding the theology of the elder Luther. 87 A number of studies followed Forsberg’s wake. In a study of Luther’s mature doctrine of baptism, for...

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and death of the elector in August of 1532 . Even so, Luther’s exposition of the chapter goes well beyond the traditional ars moriendi literature that addressed the spiritual preparations for Christian death. Taking up the chapter, verse by verse, Luther focused closely on the background and rhetorical structure of Paul’s argument, offering one of his most thorough treatments of the Christian doctrine of resurrection. Moreover, Luther drew parallels between the Corinthian controversy and the more radical representatives of the Reformation movement, Luther’s so-called...

The Luther Renaissance  

Heinrich Assel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Karl Holl: Luther’s Religion of Conscience (Gewissensreligion) State of Research The initiator of the German Luther Renaissance, the Berlin church historian Karl Holl, was the first scholar to analyze Luther’s lectures on Romans ( 1515 / 1516 ). Holl’s idea of Luther’s “religion of conscience” explained Luther’s experience of justification in a manner that turns theology into a doctrine of the dialectics of existence. This replaced, at least in principle, the previously dominant foundational understanding of justification as the basis of a worldview (Dilthey)...

Martin Luther in Dialectical Theology  

Alister E. McGrath

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...counterpart, John Calvin. 18 Yet Brunner’s works of the early 1920s show a willingness to engage a broader vision of Protestantism, including the appropriation of some core themes of the theology of Martin Luther, particularly his dialectic between “law” and “gospel,” and his notion of the “orders of creation.” 19 Brunner’s appropriation of these notions within an essentially Reformed theological framework raised some eyebrows at Zurich. At several points, Brunner seemed to be more aligned with leading Lutheran theologians of this period (such as Paul Althaus) than...

Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy  

Simon D. Podmore

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... presence of Christ’s body in the eucharist”; Backus, 917. 23. Daniel C. Fouke , “Metaphysics and the Eucharist in the Early Leibniz,” Studia Leibnitiana 24.2 (1992): 145–159, here 145–147. 24. Leonard S. Smith , Religion and the Rise of History: Martin Luther and the Cultural Revolution in Germany (Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2009), 103, 258. Smith also regards Luther’s development of the doctrine of Christ’s real presence in the Eucharist as providing a “ simul ” perspective which perceives God’s hidden presence in the world. Smith also reads Kant’s phenomena-noumena...

Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology  

Zachary Purvis

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Harvey , “Feuerbach on Luther’s Doctrine of Revelation: An Essay in Honor of Brian Garrish,” Journal of Religion 78 (1998): 3–17. 45. See David W. Lotz , Ritschl and Luther: A Fresh Perspective on Albrecht Ritschl’s Theology in the Light of his Luther Study (Nashville: Abingdon, 1974). 46. Bernhard Lohse , Martin Luther: An Introduction to His Life and Work , trans. Robert C. Schultz (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1986), 220. 47. Cf. Christophe Chalamet , “Ernst Troeltsch’s Break from Ritschl and His School,” Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift...

The Twofold Rule of God  

John R. Stumme

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

.... The Theology of Martin Luther: A Critical Assessment . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2013, 313–375. Bayer, Oswald . Martin Luther’s Theology: A Contemporary Interpretation . Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003. Benne, Robert . The Paradoxical Vision: A Public Theology for the Twenty-First Century . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995. Bornkamm, Heinrich . Luther’s Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms in the Context of His Theology . Philadelphia: Fortress, 1966. Braaten, Carl E. Essential Lutheranism: Theological Perspectives on Christian Faith and Doctrine . Delhi: American...

Martin Luther’s Disputations  

David Luy

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...interact extensively with Luther’s Christological disputations of 1539 and 1540 , and so do the essays within Oswald Bayer and Benjamin Gleede’s Creator est creatura . 138 Other important themes in the late disputations have similarly attracted their own constellation of helpful secondary studies. These include, for instance, Luther’s doctrine of the Trinity (e.g., Christine Helmer’s The Trinity and Martin Luther , Graham White’s Luther as Nominalist, Dennis Bielfeldt et al’s The Substance of the Faith and Simo Knuuttila and Risto Saarinen’s “Innertrinitarische Theologie...

Martin Luther’s Concept of Doctrine  

Friederike Nüssel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Concept of Doctrine Luther’s Concept in Light of Later Development Before we explore Martin Luther’s understanding of doctrine, it may increase awareness of the character of Luther’s approach to put him in context with earlier and especially later developments in the theological use of the concept of doctrine. While from the origins of Christianity, the fundamental task of theology has been to distinguish and preserve the “ sacra doctrina ” from heresy and defend orthodoxy against heterodoxy, post-Reformation emphasis on theological...

God in Martin Luther  

Jan-Olav Henriksen

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Stephen Paulson , “Luther’s Doctrine of God,” in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology . Edited by Robert Kolb et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 188 . 12. See e.g. the elaborations in The Three Symbols or Creeds of the Christian Faith , LW 34:201–229. As for accusations of heresies in the doctrine of God, see Helmer, Trinity , 12–14. 13. Martin Luther, Large Catechism , I, 1. 14. Gunther Wenz , Gott (Studium systematische Theologie 4; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2007), 20 , identifies this usage in Luther as pointing to...

The Cosmological Vision of Martin Luther  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...member not of their world but his own. Indeed, Oberman’s work pulled back the curtains on the wider, cosmic context within which Luther saw his own life and work unfolding. More recent work in Reformation-era apocalypticism seems to have further established Oberman’s point. 53 The standard and still indispensable work on the problem of order, authority, and hierarchy in Luther’s thought is Maurer’s Luthers Lehre von dem drei Hierarchien und ihre mittelalterliche Hintergrund . Maurer ferrets out the later medieval catechetical precursors to Luther’s doctrine of the estates...

The Gift in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Bo Kristian Holm

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...giver’s good intention). The relation between promise and faith calls for the clear revelation of the giver’s intention. For Luther, this revelation takes place sub contrario in the divine self-giving in incarnation and cross. The Self-Giving God On the basis of the integration of models of mutuality in the doctrine of justification, and in combination with a creation theology based on justification, Luther develops a clear giver-oriented theology covering all articles of faith in his later works. The cornerstone of the later Luther’s theology of divine self-giving...

Martin Luther and Lutheran Orthodoxy  

Andreas Stegmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...the basis of particular themes. Since this is not possible here, an overview of the relationship between Lutheran Orthodoxy and Luther must suffice. The Reception of Luther in the Context of the Lutheran Concord in the Second Half of the 16th Century Clarification of Luther’s authority in intra-Lutheran doctrinal disputes in the second half of the 16th century was essential for the theological reception of Luther in Lutheranism in the early modern era. 48 Even during Luther’s lifetime, different interpretations of various questions of doctrine had arisen...

Reason and Philosophy in Martin Luther’s Thought  

Hans-Peter Grosshans

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...15. Martin Luther, Heidelberg Disputation, LW 31:35–70. The complete philosophical theses of Luther in the Heidelberg disputation with their demonstration ( probationes ) were published only in 1979 by Helmar Junghans: Helmar Junghans, ed., “Die probationes zu den philosophischen Thesen der Heidelberger Disputation Luthers im Jahre 1518,” in Lutherjahrbuch 46 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979), 10–59. See as well the extensive analyses of parts of this text by Gerhard Ebeling, who concentrates on Luther’s interpretation of Aristotle’s doctrines of...

Martin Luther in Denmark  

Niels Henrik Gregersen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Grundtvig of 1832 (rather than the church-oriented Grundtvig of 1825 ) who took the foreground both in popular awareness and among theologians. This situation opened space for a new alliance between Luther’s doctrine of the two kingdoms and Grundtvig’s distinction between the universal aspects of the Mosaic-Christian creation faith and the particular nature of the Christian message. A so-called Tidehverv-Grundtvigian circle began to take shape after 1937 , flourishing after World War II. Among pastors and leaders of the Grundtvigian high school movement, secular...

Natural Theology and Natural Law in Martin Luther  

Knut Alfsvåg

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...secular and the neutral, Luther’s faith-based approach to reality, the implication of which is that secular notions of reason, nature, and world do not make sense, 79 may seem arbitrary. Luther maintains, however, that the identity of the divine, and thus, through the doctrine of creation, even of the world and the natural, has to be given through history and narrative. The increasing awareness of the tradition-based contextuality of our understanding of the natural should allow for a more adequate approach to Luther’s thought world, which in this respect might be closer...

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