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Martin Luther’s Life, 1483–1516  

Volker Leppin

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Life, 14831516 Youth To understand Martin Luther means to understand a person whose life and piety was shaped within a late medieval framework. We know little to nothing about his early years, mainly from his own recollections and in some cases from the stories told by his friends, e.g., Philipp Melanchthon. It was Melanchthon who first set down 1483 as the year of Luther’s birth, following a family tradition. 1 Actually, as with many other cases in the medieval and early modern period, the year remains uncertain. Some facts suggest...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...31:17–33. 5. See Luther’s sermons of July 26, 1516 (WA 1:424); July 27, 1516 (WA 1:69). 6. Luther, Tractatus de indulgentiis (1517), WA 1:65–69. 7. Luther to Albrecht, October 31, 1517, WA BR 1:110–12, LW 48:43–49. 8. See Melanchthon, Praefatio in tomum secundum omnium operum reverendi domini Martini Lutheri (1546), in Philippi Melanthonis Opera quae supersunt omnia , eds. C. G. Bretschneider and H. E. Bindseil , 28 vols. (Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, 1834–60), 6:161–163, translated in Luther’s Lives: Two Contemporary Accounts of Martin Luther , trans. Elizabeth...

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Ladner, The Idea of Reform , 31. 9. For overviews of Luther’s studies as a monk and preparation for university teaching, see Martin Brecht , Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation 1483–1521 , trans. J. Schaaf (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), chs. 3 and 5; and Volker Leppin , Martin Luther , 2d ed. (Darmstadt: VBG, 2010), chs. 2 and 3. 10. On Luther’s use of Bernard, with particular reference to bridal imagery, see Theo Bell , Divus Bernhardus: Bernhard von Clairvaux in Martin Luthers Schriften (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1993). Cf. Ulrich Köpf...

Martin Luther on Christian Hope and the Hope for Eternal Life  

Jeffrey G. Silcock

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...der Gerechtigkeit Gottes durch Martin Luther (Neukirchen am Niederrhein: Neukirchener Verlag, 1958), 20–21, holds that all Luther’s writings up to the end of his Hebrews lectures (1518) are pre-reformational and uses the key term “humility” ( humilitas ) to describe the theological emphasis of this period. Martin Brecht , Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation (1483–1521) , trans. James L. Schaaf (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993), 128, adopts a similar approach. This article follows Bizer, Brecht, and Bayer in not dating Luther’s “breakthrough” and hence the beginning...

Johannes von Staupitz’s Influence on Martin Luther  

Franz Posset

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Reform of the Indulgences, 1516–1517 Criticism of indulgences arose long before Luther’s Ninety-Five Propositions (“Theses”) of 1517 . 35 Staupitz and his disciple Luther, in cooperation with their confrère Wenceslaus Linck ( 1483–1547 ), took turns in speaking up publicly against indulgences, probably by April 1516 . An anonymous text is extant called Treatise on Indulgences . Some scholars assume that it represents Luther’s sermon of July 26, 1516 , against the indulgence business. Yet the title of this text indicates only that Luther “edited” ( editus ) the...

Martin Luther and the Lord’s Prayer  

Matthias Mikoteit

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Original von Luthers „Vater-Unser vorwärts und rückwärts“ vom Jahre 1516,” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 48 (1929): 198–207, here 205f. Not all of Luther’s sermons are included in the list above. His sermon from October 12, 1516 is of particular interest (WA 1:89–94). It is difficult to determine whether the interpretation of the Lord’s Prayer that it contains (90, 8–94, 4) is older or more recent than the one that Spalatin handed down. 26. WA 6:21f. 27. WA 2:80–130. 28. WA 2:175–179. Clemen, “Das lateinische Original,” 206. 29. Brecht, Martin Luther , vol. 1...

Martin Luther in Pietism  

Carter Lindberg

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...“Preface to the Complete Edition of a German Theology,” LW 31:71–76. 20. See Martin Brecht , Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation, 1483–1521 , trans. James Schaaf (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), 137–144 ; Martin Brecht , “Randbemerkungen in Luthers Ausgaben der ‘Deutsch Theologia,’” Lutherjahrbuch 47 (1980): 11–32 ; and Andreas Zecherle , “Die ‘Theologia Deutsch,’ Ein spätmittelalterlicher Traktat,” in Gottes Nähe unmittelbar erfahren: Mystik im Mittelalter und bei Martin Luther , ed. Berndt Hamm and Volker Leppin (Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2007)...

Mysticism in Martin Luther’s Development and Thoughts  

Volker Leppin

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...question of penitence 42 (s. article Luther’s biography 14831516 ), it seems not too much to state that the mystical texts of Tauler and the Theologia deutsch in the years 1515 /16 informed Luther’s theology at a central point and helped shape his Reformation theology on the basis of medieval insights. Transformation of Mystical Theology Observing Tauler’s inclination to pursue a deeper understanding of penitence, one should not be surprised by Luther’s statement that he just wanted to follow John Tauler, as cited earlier. Tauler’s “very good counsel” seems...

Nominalism and the Via Moderna in Luther’s Theological Work  

Pekka Kärkkäinen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Otto Scheel , Martin Luther, vom Katholizismus zur Reformation. Erster Band. Auf der Schule und Universität (Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1921), 121–234. 64. Martin Brecht , Martin Luther. Sein Weg zur Reformation 1483–1521 (Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1981), 42–47. 65. Kleineidam, Universitas Studii Erffordensis II , 163–169. For a summary of this line of study, see Dieter, Der Junge Luther , 14–18. 66. Oberman, Harvest . 67. Grane, Contra Gabrielem . 68. White, Luther as Nominalist . 69. Dieter, Der Junge Luther . 70. Lalla, ...

Martin Luther, Augustinianism, and Augustine  

Phillip Anderas

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Kirchenvaters Augustinus im Werk Martin Luthers (1483–1546),” in Augustinus: Spuren und Spiegelungen seines Denkens. Band 1. Von den Anfängen bis zur Reformation , ed. Norbert Fischer (Hamburg, Germany: Felix Meiner, 2009), 211–223, esp. 214–215; Volker Leppin , Martin Luther (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2006), 65, 93–95; Jairzinho Lopes Pereira , Augustine of Hippo and Martin Luther on Original Sin and Justification of the Sinner (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013); cf. Saarinen’s foreword to Pereira’s book, p. 11. See too Phillip...

Martin Luther and Preaching  

Steve Paulson and Chris Croghan

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and that the sermon must relate the individual hearer to the living God. Emanuel Hirsch , “Luther’s Predigtweise,” Luther: Mitteilungen der Luthergesellschaft 25 (1954): 8. 4. Kenneth Hagen , Luther’s Approach to Scripture as Seen in His “Commentaries” on Galatians, 1519–1538 (Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1993), 47. 5. Ibid. 6. LW 34:285–287; WA 50:659, 7–27. 7. WA 1:31, 3–27, 37.1ff. 8. Martin Brecht , Martin Luther His Road to Reformation, 1483–1521 , trans. James L. Schaaf (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1985), 150–154. 9. WA 1:103, 17....

Magic and the Occult in Martin Luther’s World  

Kathryn A. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...time would not have found the connection so far-fetched. While Agrippa’s magic focused on the philosophical, occult properties of nature, and magic itself was an appreciation of God’s intent and actions within his creation (that is, nature), legal scholars like Ulrich Molitor ( c. 1442–pre-1507 ) and religious reformers like Martin Luther ( 1483–1546 ) emphasized the ways it could be applied and could distract humans from true ways of knowing God, and even lead them to damnation. Yet Luther and his followers continued to tell stories about marvels, spirits, and...

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