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Martin Luther’s Life, 1526–1546  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Life, 15261546 Married Life, Home, and Family It is perhaps surprising to learn that Luther continued to wear the Augustinian habit until 1524 , divesting himself of it less than a year before his marriage to Katharina von Bora in 1525 . 1 Forty-two at the time of the marriage and accustomed to life in the all-male community of the Augustinian house, he found himself no longer cloistered away as a religious and adjusting instead to married life. 2 He humorously noted the new experience of “pigtails on the pillow” next to him. 3 The...

Martin Luther’s Sermons and Postils  

John M. Frymire

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and Neil Leroux , Luther’s Rhetoric: Strategies and Style from the Invocavit Sermons (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 2002). 52. Jonathan Mumme , Die Präsenz Christi im Amt. Am Beispiel ausgewählter Predigten Martin Luthers, 1535–1546 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015); Mumme’s source base includes among other sermons fifty-four from ordinations. 53. Brecht, Martin Luther , 1:341. 54. Paul Pietsch in WA 10/III:lv–lxxx. 55. David V. N. Bagchi , Luther’s Earliest Opponents: Catholic Controversialists, 1518–1525 (Minneapolis: Fortress...

Martin Luther’s Occasional Writings: Table Talk, Letters, and Prefaces  

Wolf-Friedrich Schäufele

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...1518–1525 ), John the Steadfast ( 1520–1532 ), and John Frederick the Magnanimous ( 1520–1546 ), Princes George ( 1533–1546 ), Joachim ( 1532–1542 ), John ( 1532–1544 ), and Wolfgang ( 1528–1541 ) of Anhalt, and Landgrave Philip of Hesse ( 1526–1545 ). But Luther also wrote to Emperor Charles V ( 1520–1521 ), King Henry VIII of England ( 1525 ), and Kings Christian II ( 1532 ) and Christian III ( 1528–1546 ) of Denmark. The remaining c . 30 percent of Luther’s correspondence was with correspondents from almost all classes of society, from Pope Leo...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...31:17–33. 5. See Luther’s sermons of July 26, 1516 (WA 1:424); July 27, 1516 (WA 1:69). 6. Luther, Tractatus de indulgentiis (1517), WA 1:65–69. 7. Luther to Albrecht, October 31, 1517, WA BR 1:110–12, LW 48:43–49. 8. See Melanchthon, Praefatio in tomum secundum omnium operum reverendi domini Martini Lutheri (1546), in Philippi Melanthonis Opera quae supersunt omnia , eds. C. G. Bretschneider and H. E. Bindseil , 28 vols. (Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, 1834–60), 6:161–163, translated in Luther’s Lives: Two Contemporary Accounts of Martin Luther , trans. Elizabeth...

Martin Luther’s Perspectival Eschatology  

Vítor Westhelle

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Ole . “Luther über die Letzten Dinge.” In Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546: Festgabe zu seinem 500. Geburstag . Edited by Helmar Junghans , 331–345. Berlin: Evangelische Verlaganstalt, 1983. Mühling, Markus . “Eschatologie.” In Luther-Lexikon . Edited by Volker Leppin and Gury Schneider-Ludorff Regensburg , 199–204. Regensburg, Germany: Bückle & Böhm, 2014. Oberman, Heiko . “ Teufelsdreck : Eschatology and Scatology in the ‘Old’ Luther.” Sixteenth Century Journal 19.3 (1988): 435–450. Parsons, Michael . “The Apocalyptic Luther: His Noahic...

Martin Luther's Practice of Old Testament Commentary  

John A. Maxfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...s in Psalmos 1519–1521 , Teil I: Historisch-theologische Einleitung [=AWA 1] (Cologne and Vienna: Böhlau, 1991), 36–47. 9. LW 13:75 (WA 40/III:484). 10. The accounting of Luther’s university lectures is based on Siegfried Raeder , “Luther als Ausleger und Übersetzer der Heiligen Schrift,” in Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546: Festgabe zu seinem 500. Geburtstag im Auftrag des theologischen Arbeitskreises für Reformationsgeschichtliche Forschung , ed. Helmar Junghans (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983), vol. 1, 255–258. 11....

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...an overview of the Bohemian Brethren’s theology and early history, see Erhard Peschke , Kirche und Welt in der Theologie der Böhmischen Brüder vom Mittelalter zur Reformation (Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1981); and Craig Atwood , The Theology of the Czech Brethren from Hus to Comenius (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2009). 6. On Luther’s ongoing dialogue with the Brethren, see Amedeo Molnár , “Luthers Beziehungen zu den Böhmischen Brüdern,” in Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546 , vol. 1, ed. H. Junghans (Göttingen...

Martin Luther on the Church and Its Ministry  

Cheryl M. Peterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...while Luther understood bishops to be preachers and teachers of the Word, he also distinguished their work from that of the pastor, particularly regarding the tasks of oversight and visitation. Further Reading Beyer, Michael . “Luthers Ekklesiologie.” In Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 15261546 . Edited by Helmar Junghans , 93–117, 755–765. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983. Brecht, Martin , ed. Martin Luther und das Bishofsamt . Berlin: Calwer Verlag, 1990. Daniel, David P. “Luther on the Church.” In The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s...

Martin Luther as a Polemicist  

Thomas Kaufmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Junghans, Helmar , ed. Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1646 . 2 vols. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983. Kaufmann, Thomas . „ Türckenbüchlein“. Zur christlichen Wahrnehmung „türkischer Religion“ in Spätmittelalter und Reformation . Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008. Kaufmann, Thomas . Luthers „Judenschriften“. Ein Beitrag zu ihrer historischen Kontextualisierung . Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Kaufmann, Thomas . Luthers Juden . Stuttgart: Reclam, 2017. Kaufmann, Thomas . Luther’s Jews . Oxford: Oxford University...

Martin Luther’s Views on Mission and Christianization  

Michal Valčo

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Christ” is what helps us see Luther’s relevance today. Oswald Beyer , Martin Luther’s Theology: A Contemporary Interpretation , translated by Thomas Trapp (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008), 10. 24. Sermon on Matthew 8:23–27 (January 31, 1546), WA 51:155, 16–28. 25. Several Chapters of St. John the Evangelist (1537), LW 22:197–198; Temporal Authority: To What Extent it should be Obeyed (1523), LW 45:91–92. 26. Sermon on Titus 2:11–15, Christmas Postil (1522), WA 10/I.1:21–23. Cf. Luther’s Preface to the New Testament (1546/1522), LW 35:359; and ...

Martin Luther’s Writings  

Robert Kolb

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Language and the Trinity in Luther’s Works (1523–1546) (Mainz: von Zabern, 1999). 7. James W. Voelz , What Does This Mean? Principles of Biblical Interpretation in the Post-Modern World , 2d ed. (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1997), 294. 8. Jerome Bruner , Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), 6. 9. Neil R. Leroux , Luther’s Rhetoric: Strategies and Style from the Invocavit Sermons (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 2002), 21–22. 10. Edwards, Printing , 11. 11. Mark Mattes , Martin Luther’s Theology of Beauty (Grand...

Martin Luther on Prayer in Life  

Mary Jane Haemig

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Press, 1955. Vajta, Vilmos . “Luther als Beter.” In Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546: Festgabe zu seinem 500. Geburtstag . Edited by Helmar Junghans . Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983. Wengert, Timothy . “Luther on Prayer in the Large Catechism.” In The Pastoral Luther: Essays on Martin Luther’s Practical Theology . Edited by Timothy J. Wengert , 171–197. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009. Wertelius, Gunnar . Oratio Continua: Das Verhältnis zwischen Glaube und Gebet in der Theologie Martin Luthers . Lund, Sweden: CWK Gleerup, 1970...

Martin Luther in Britain and Anglican Theology  

Mark D. Chapman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Society 11 (1912): 214–215. 58. Trueman, Luther’s Legacy . 59. Clebsch, England’s Earliest Protestants ; L. J. Tinterud , “A Reappraisal of William Tyndale’s Debt to Martin Luther,” Church History 31 (1962): 24–45; and Hall, “Early Rise.” 60. Trueman, Luther’s Legacy , 54. 61. A compendious introduccion, prologe or preface vn to the pistle off Paul to the Romayns (Worms, 1526), STC 24438; also in The Works of William Tyndale , 3 vols. (London: Parker Society, 1848), 1.7–28. 62. Cited in Clebsch, England’s Earliest Protestants , 146. 63. It was...

Law in Doctrine and Life According to Martin Luther  

Risto Saarinen and Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...points of Agricola’s position and the complicated personal and professional contexts in which the dispute was negotiated can be found in Martin Brecht , Martin Luther: The Preservation of the Church, 1532–1546 , trans. James L. Schaaf (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993), 3:156–171. 29. LW 47:104–5; WA 39/I:571–2. 30. WA TR 6:147. 31. For general background information, see Stephen Westerholm , Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The “Lutheran” Paul and His Critics (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004). 32. Wilfried Härle , “Paulus und Luther. Ein kritischer...

Martin Luther and the Saxon Electors  

Marjorie Elizabeth Plummer

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...2015), 133–157. 11. Philipp Melanchthon , “History of the Life and Acts of Dr. Martin Luther (1546),” in Luther’s Lives: Two Contemporary Accounts of Martin Luther , eds. Elizabeth Vandiver , Ralph Keen , and Thomas D. Frazel (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2002), 17, 20; Philipp Melanchthon , Historia de Vita et Actis Reverendiss. Viri D. Mart. Lutheri (Erfurt, 1548). 12. Johannes Cochlaeus, “The Deeds and Writings of Martin Luther (1549),” in Vandiver, Keen, and Frazel, Luther’s Lives , 60. 13. Ernst Salomon Cyprian , Georgi Spalatini...

Martin Luther’s Theology of Authority  

Martin J. Lohrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...York: Peter Lang, 1996. Vercruysse, Jos E. “Schlüsselgewalt und Beichte bei Luther.” In Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546 , vol. 1. Edited by Helmar Junghans . Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1983. Wengert, Timothy J. Priesthood, Pastors, Bishops: Public Ministry for the Reformation & Today . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2008. Notes 1. BC 386, 1–3. 2. BC 351, 2. 3. BC 430, 327. 4. BC 390, 36. 5. BC 355, 4. 6. Martin Luther , Luther’s Works , eds. Jaroslav Pelikan et al. (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1955–) [hereafter...

Martin Luther, Jews, and Judaism  

Dorothea Wendebourg

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...as Luther did not play a prominent role in religious life and scientific work in general. Peter Wiener’s notorious pamphlet Martin Luther: Hitler’s Spiritual Ancestor (London, 1945 ) received a refutation based on historical scholarship by Gordon Rupp, Martin Luther: Hitler’s Cause or Cure? (London, 1945 ). Only in 1971 , “On the Jews and Their Lies” appeared in English in the scholarly edition Luther’s Works after right-wing ideologists in the United States had published it already in 1948 . “On the Last Words of David” is also included in Lutherss Works...

The Twofold Rule of God  

John R. Stumme

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...” In The Pastoral Luther: Essays on Martin Luther’s Practical Theology . Edited by Timothy J. Wengert , 355–380. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009. Forde, Gerhard O. “Christian Life.” In Christian Dogmatics , vol. 2. Edited by Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson , 391–465. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984. Forell, George W. Faith Active in Love . Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1954. Frostin, Per . Luther’s Two Kingdoms Doctrine: A Critical Study . Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press, 1994. Gaebler, Mary . The Courage of Faith: Martin Luther and the Theonomous...

Martin Luther in Pietism  

Carter Lindberg

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...1519–1521, WA 5:163. 38. LW 35:370. 39. Martin Schmidt , “Spener und LutherLuther Jahrbuch 25 (1957) ; 102–129, especially 124; Brecht, “Speners Verhältnis zu Martin Luther,” 199; Wallmann, Philipp Jakob Spener , 256; Gerald Krispin , “Quantifiable Righteousness: Justification and Regeneration in Pietist Thought,” in Pietism and Lutheranism , ed. John A. Maxfield (St. Louis, MO: Concordia Historical Institute, 1999), 8–49 , especially 28–31; and Pia Desideria , 64–65. 40. “Preface to the German Mass,” 1526; LW 53:51–90, quotation from 63–64; and Wallmann...

Martin Luther and the Lord’s Prayer  

Matthias Mikoteit

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...instance. Martin Luther as the Interpreter of the Lord’s Prayer None of the late medieval texts mentioned above lay quite as much emphasis on the significance of the Lord’s Prayer as does Gabriel Biel’s commentary on the Canon of the Mass. That widely read work not only documented the central position that the Lord’s Prayer held concerning prayer within church life, but also reinforced it. In lessons 61–63 Biel first discusses prayer (the oratio ) in general terms in order to then explore the Lord’s Prayer in greater detail in lessons 64–79. Thus, Luther followed what...

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