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Martin Luther’s Perspectival Eschatology  

Vítor Westhelle

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Perspectival Eschatology The State of the Issue Luther’s eschatology was until the first half of the 20th century a mute locus in the treatment of Luther’s dogmatics. 1 One of the reasons for this omission is Christ’s presence in justification by grace received in faith: “now heaven and earth have become one” 2 This is an “eternal moment” 3 in which “the gate of paradise itself is open.” 4 Eschatology is consumed by justification. The peasant’s uprising ( 1525 ), led by enthusiast leaders with chiliastic expectations and speculative c...

Martin Luther, History, and Its Meaning  

Curtis L. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...to the Young Luther (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), 211. 23. Preus, From Shadow to Promise , 267–268. 24. Bayer, Martin Luther’s Theology , 48. 25. LW 8:192. Bayer cites this passage in Martin Luther’s Theology , 48. 26. Thompson, “Luther on God and History,” 133. 27. Heinrich Bornkamm , Luther’s World of Thought , trans. Martin H. Bertram (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1958), 202, 196. 28. Leonard S. Smith , “Martin Luther and the Foundations of a Lutheran Ethic,” Religion and the Rise of History: Martin Luther and the Cultural...

Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper  

R. David Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...to this shift in Luther’s polemics. Lienhard frames Luther’s theology of the Lord’s Supper within the context of his Christology, demonstrating that the Reformer’s understanding of the eschatological lordship of Jesus Christ animates his approach to the controversy surrounding the idea of real presence. 44 By following this trajectory, Lienhard’s study accentuates the interconnectedness among Christology, eschatology, soteriology, and sacramental theology in Luther’s dogmatics. Brecht’s detailed and chronologically arranged account of Luther’s life and thought from...

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...has written a detailed examination of Luther’s early interpretation of the law in Galatians 3 and 4. Analyzing Luther’s earliest lectures from 1513 to his postils in 1522 , Herrmann documents a fundamental change in his interpretation of Galatians, indicative of a new theological and hermeneutical perspective on Paul. 111 In the effort to better understand the nature and timing of Luther’s theological development a few studies made some close observations on Luther’s Hebrews lecture. Most important was Axel Gyllenkrok’s 1952 study on justification and the...

Martin Luther’s Treatises and Essays  

Mark D. Tranvik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Understanding Martin Luther’s Demonological Rhetoric in His Treatise against the Heavenly Prophets (1525) . Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen, 2010. Rosin, Robert . “Humanism, Luther, and the Wittenberg Reformation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology . Edited by Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomír Batka , 91–104. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Stolt, Birgit . “Luther’s Faith of the Heart: Experience, Emotion and Reason.” In The Global Luther . Edited by Christine Helmer , 131–150. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009. Vind, Anna . “Luther’s Thought...

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

..., “Luther and the Late Medieval Augustinians: Another Look,” Concordia Theological Monthly 44 (1973): 245–260; and Volker Leppin , “Luther’s Transformation of Medieval Thought: Continuity and Discontinuity,” in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology , eds. L. Batka et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 115–124. 13. On these potential influences, see Erik Herrmann, “Luther’s Absorption of Medieval Biblical Interpretation,” and Volker Leppin, “Luther’s Roots in Monastic-Mystical Piety,” both in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology...

Martin Luther in Dialectical Theology  

Alister E. McGrath

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...pastors in the neighboring villages of Safenwil and Leutwil in the Aargau region of Switzerland in the late 1910s and early 1920s. Both Barth and Thurneysen saw a historical precedent for their emerging program of critical and radical theological restructuring as lying in the Reformation of the 16th century, spearheaded by Martin Luther. Yet this rhetorical alignment with Luther did not initially rest on a solid understanding or close reading of Luther’s works. Luther was appropriated more as a theological figurehead (perhaps even a totem), rather than as a theological resource...

Reason and Philosophy in Martin Luther’s Thought  

Hans-Peter Grosshans

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and theological knowledge was, first of all, about a different perspective—or, to use another terminology, a different conceptual scheme and, as a result, a different order of things. For Luther, theological knowledge was characterized by its eschatological perspective, through which things were perceived within and in relation to the divine reality, which the faithful, as well as all other creatures, were hoping for. In one of his first lectures, the lecture on Romans in the winter of 1515–1516 , Luther tried to differentiate in that sense between philosophy and theology...

The Twofold Rule of God  

John R. Stumme

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...State: Lutheran Perspectives . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003. Lazareth, William H. Christians in Society: Luther, the Bible and Social Ethics . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001. Lohse, Bernhard . Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1999, 151–159. Luther, Martin . Selected Psalms II , vol. 13 of Luther’s Works . Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan . Saint Louis, MO: Concordia, 1956. Luther, Martin . “Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should be Obeyed.” In The Christian in Society , vol. 45 of Luther’s Works . Edited...

Martin Luther as a Polemicist  

Thomas Kaufmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Moeller, “Luther und das Papsttum,” in Beutel, Luther Handbuch , 106–115. 4. Eric. W. Gritsch , Martin Luther’s Anti-Semitism: Against His Better Judgement (Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans, 2012). 5. Johannes Ehmann , Luther, Türken und Islam (Gütersloh, Germany: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2015); and Adam S. Francisco , Martin Luther and Islam: A Study in Sixteenth-Century Polemics and Apologetics (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007). 6. Cf. Hellmut Zschoch, “Streitschriften,” in Beutel, Luther Handbuch , 277–294; Martin Brecht , Luther als Schriftsteller...

The Luther Renaissance  

Heinrich Assel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Germany: Mohr Siebeck,2002), vol. 5, 606–608 , focuses only on the German Luther Renaissance between 1910 and 1945; Heirich Assel , “The Use of Luther’s Thought in 19th Century and Luther Renaissance,” in The OxfordHandbook of Martin Luther’s Theology , edited by Robert Kolb et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 551–572 , locates the German Luther Renaissance in the overall perspective of German Luther reseach from Hamann and Herder in the late 18th century, via the 19th century to the Luther Renaissance. The present article also considers current international...

Martin Luther and Relational Thinking  

Risto Saarinen

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... In his study of Luther’s ontology of personhood, Joest takes over the claims of Ebeling and employs them to create a systematic interpretation of Luther’s theological anthropology. In this venture, Joest does not reduce Luther’s ontological language into existential experience but constructs a theological ontology that is thoroughly relational. Joest maintains that Luther understands humanity within three relational realms. A person is responsive, as he receives everything in the correlative relation of word and faith. A person is eschatological, that is, his fulfillment...

Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology  

Zachary Purvis

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...2009), 173–218. 44. Van A. Harvey , “Feuerbach on Luther’s Doctrine of Revelation: An Essay in Honor of Brian Garrish,” Journal of Religion 78 (1998): 3–17. 45. See David W. Lotz , Ritschl and Luther: A Fresh Perspective on Albrecht Ritschl’s Theology in the Light of his Luther Study (Nashville: Abingdon, 1974). 46. Bernhard Lohse , Martin Luther: An Introduction to His Life and Work , trans. Robert C. Schultz (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1986), 220. 47. Cf. Christophe Chalamet , “Ernst Troeltsch’s Break from Ritschl and His School,” Journal for the...

Martin Luther in Karl Marx  

Paul R. Hinlicky

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...theology in Luther’s tradition, Marxism is a Christian heresy, 19 while from Marx’s perspective, Luther’s reformation—in spite of Luther personally—let the genie out of the bottle, who then appeared “ahead of time,” so to speak, in Thomas Müntzer’s consistent revolutionary agitation. It was Luther’s updated critique of usury that exposed the status quo and released the genie, even if Luther personally drew back from its revolutionary implications. To see this clearly, then, we must bracket the predominant picture of the Luther–Marx relation. Setting Engels (and...

Martin Luther’s Views on Mission and Christianization  

Michal Valčo

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...failed to “grasp the apocalyptic eschatology at the heart of Luther’s efforts.” 121 On the other hand, Lutheran Pietism did utilize some of Luther’s insights. Young Luther’s theologia crucis , underlining humility and suffering as the way of Christian faith, found its new expression in Johan Arndt’s True Christianity ( 1605–1610 ), 122 as did Luther’s depiction of the mystical union of believer with Christ, who becomes the “Bridegroom of the soul.” Spener, too, built on this theme in his Pia Desideria , but he departed from Luther’s dynamic trinitarianism into what...

Martin Luther and Systematic Theology  

Paul R. Hinlicky

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... 5. Graham White , Luther as Nominalist: A Study of the Logical Methods Used in Martin Luther’s Disputations in the Light of Their Medieval Background , Schriften der Luther-Agricola-Gesellschaft 30 (Helsinki: Luther-Agricola Society 1994) ; Dennis Bielfeldt , Mickey L. Mattox , and Paul R. Hinlicky , The Substance of the Faith: Luther’s Doctrinal Theology for Today (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2008) ; and Christine Helmer , The Trinity and Martin Luther: A Study on the Relationship between Genre, Language and the Trinity in Luther’s Works, 1523–1546 (Mainz...

Baptism in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Kirsi Stjerna

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...GK 1122:1–14. 23. See Mark D. Tranvik , “Luther on Baptism,” Lutheran Quarterly , n.s., 13.1 (Spring 1999): 75–90. Jonathan D. Trigg , Baptism in the Theology of Martin Luther , Studies in the History of Christian Thought 56 (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994). 24. Luther’s Large Catechism offers a helpful approach to baptism as a focal point for Luther’s spirituality. See Kirsi Stjerna , No Greater Jewel: Thinking about Baptism with Luther (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2010). On the continuity in Luther’s teaching, see also Trigg, Baptism , 10–11, 62–66...

The Distinction between Law and Gospel in Martin Luther’s Theological Development  

Charles P. Arand

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...WA. Luther, Martin . “Heidelberg Disputation.” 1518. LW 31, 35–70; WA 1, 353–374. Luther, Martin . “Two Kinds of Righteousness.” 1519. LW 31, 293–306; WA 2, 145–152. Luther, Martin . “Freedom of the Christian.” 1520. LW 31, 327–377; WA 7, 1–73. Luther, Martin . “Personal Prayer Book.” 1522. LW 43, 47–55. WA 10 II, 322–326. Luther, Martin . “Luther’s Small and Large Catechisms.” In The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Edited by Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert , 347–480. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000. Luther, Martin...

Martin Luther, Jews, and Judaism  

Dorothea Wendebourg

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...as Luther did not play a prominent role in religious life and scientific work in general. Peter Wiener’s notorious pamphlet Martin Luther: Hitler’s Spiritual Ancestor (London, 1945 ) received a refutation based on historical scholarship by Gordon Rupp, Martin Luther: Hitler’s Cause or Cure? (London, 1945 ). Only in 1971 , “On the Jews and Their Lies” appeared in English in the scholarly edition Luther’s Works after right-wing ideologists in the United States had published it already in 1948 . “On the Last Words of David” is also included in Lutherss Works...

Martin Luther and Ontology  

Dennis Bielfeldt

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...esp. 16. 49. Theodor Dieter , Der junge Luther und Aristoteles: Eine historisch-systematische Untersuchung zum Verhältnis von Theologie und Philosophie (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2001). 50. Dieter, Der junge Luther, 420. 51. Oswald Bayer , Martin Luther’s Theology , translated by Thomas Trapp (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008), 18. 52. Bayer, Martin Luther’s Theology , 18. 53. Bayer, Martin Luther’s Theology , 51–55, 101–105. Bayer compares God’s address in creation and redemption to John Austin’s notion of a performative utterance. 54....

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