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Martin Luther’s Protestant Opponents  

William R. Russell

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Martin Luther’s Protestant Opponents ( Schwärmerei ) Luther and Language Schwärmerei as Metaphor Martin Luther’s use of the 16th-century German words Schwärmerei and Schwärmer has no automatic equivalent in modern English—as a list of representative renderings demonstrates: “enthusiasts, fanatics, rabble, ravers, radicals, rebels, romantics, schismatics, sectarians, spiritualists,” and so on. As their absence from this list indicates, the literal English cognates, “Swarm-ism” and “Swarmers,” do not deliver the symbolic sting that Luther intended. He used...

Portrayals of Martin Luther in Print, Stage and Film  

Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and grace. Luther’s thought has this tension, and his person bore this tension. The papacy could not bear such a relationally conditioned approach to doctrine, and thence the Protestant schism. The two most widely read and discussed biographies in the English-speaking world in the 20th century could hardly portray Luther more differently. These are Roland Bainton’s Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther 49 and Heiko Oberman’s Luther: Man between God and the Devil . 50 Perhaps the best way to understand Oberman’s book is to see it in line with Ebeling’s. Ebeling...

Martin Luther in North America  

Mark A. Granquist

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

.... Of course, Martin Luther was a figure of great importance to these movements, especially his personal example of standing up to the power of the papacy, and his scathing condemnations of the pope and the medieval Catholic Church. Prominent opponents of Roman Catholicism, such as Samuel F. B. Morse and Lyman Beecher, cited Luther’s example and positions in their attacks against “Romanism and Papalism,” attacks that were intensified by immigration and the First Vatican Council in 1870 . Such Protestants were also drawn to a similar picture of Luther in the writings...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...See David V. N. Bagchi , Luther’s Earliest Opponents: Catholic Controversialists, 1518–1525 (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991). 23. See the catalogue of works in Edwards, Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther , pp. 43–44 and notes 6–20. 24. Edwards, Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther , 44–51. 25. Luther, Sermon von dem ehelichen Stand (1519), WA 2:166–171, LW 44:3–14. 26. Luther, Von den guten Werken (1520), WA 6:202–276. 27. Luther, Sermo de triplici iustitia (1518), WA 2:43–47; Luther, Sermo de duplici iustitia (1518), WA 2:145–152, LW 31:293–306...

Martin Luther’s Sermons and Postils  

John M. Frymire

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...and Neil Leroux , Luther’s Rhetoric: Strategies and Style from the Invocavit Sermons (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 2002). 52. Jonathan Mumme , Die Präsenz Christi im Amt. Am Beispiel ausgewählter Predigten Martin Luthers, 1535–1546 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015); Mumme’s source base includes among other sermons fifty-four from ordinations. 53. Brecht, Martin Luther , 1:341. 54. Paul Pietsch in WA 10/III:lv–lxxx. 55. David V. N. Bagchi , Luther’s Earliest Opponents: Catholic Controversialists, 1518–1525 (Minneapolis: Fortress...

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Poduška , “Letter to Martin Luther” (July 17, 1519), in D. Martin Luthers Werke: Briefwechsel (Weimar: H. Böhlau, 1883–), vol. 1, 416–418 (hereinafter cited as WABr); and Václav Roždalovský , “Letter to Martin Luther” (July 17, 1519), in WABR 1:419–420. These quotations, 418 and 420. For an overview of Utraquist history and the church’s interactions with Protestant reformers, see Zdeněk David , Finding the Middle Way: The Utraquists’ Liberal Challenge to Rome and Luther (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2003). 29. Martin Luther, “Letter to Georg...

Martin Luther in the Eyes of His Roman Catholic Opponents  

Jared Wicks

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... David Bagchi , Luther’s Earliest Opponents, Catholic Controversialists 1518–1515 (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991). 28. Eck’s critical “swords” ( Obelisci ) and Luther’s defensive “stars” ( Asterisci ) came out in the Wittenberg edition of Luther’s Latin works, vol. 1 (1545), with a recent edition, introduced and annotated, in Dokumente zur Causa Lutheri , 1:401–447. Luther’s complaint comes from a letter of March 24, 1518 (WABr 1:158). 29. Eck’s study of Luther’s “Explanations of the Ninety-Five Theses,” thesis 22, led him to attack Luther not for a thesis but...

Martin Luther’s Life, 1526–1546  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Frederick, twenty years Luther’s junior, as elector of Saxony. Edwards has noted that during this same period Luther became increasingly polemical and scatological, employing against opponents on every side the language of demonization. 82 Oberman noted in response that Luther had always been scatological, and Bagchi has argued convincingly that Luther’s use of the language of the privy is fundamentally theological. 83 Single-volume biographies of Luther focus on the dramatic story of the young man and the Ninety-Five Theses (e.g., Leppin’s Martin Luther ), as indeed they...

Martin Luther as a Polemicist  

Thomas Kaufmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Jews, Turks and inner-Reformation opponents. 8 Vind recently published a detailed and balanced treatment of Luther’s polemic. 9 Martin Luther remains one of the most disputatious theologians of his epoch. By the 16th century his polemics were often considered offensive, criticized, and taken as grounds for opposing the positions he espoused; moreover, Luther’s theological leadership was then challenged, and exaggerated opinions regarding him as a prophet of God were emphatically contested. Since 1525 at the latest, as Luther’s views were circulating about the...

Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper  

R. David Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper Texts, Trends, and Themes of Luther’s Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper Theological accounts of the Lord’s Supper typically treat it beneath the heading of Christian sacraments, listing the Supper alongside baptism (most Protestants), sometimes these two together with absolution, or penance (some Protestants), in other arrangements these three plus confirmation, the anointing of the sick, holy orders, and matrimony (Catholic Christianity), or, at least in the case of Orthodox Christianity, these seven within...

Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology  

Zachary Purvis

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology Luther and the Meanings of Protestantism “One might call our age, the age of monuments,” Eisleben’s superintendent, Christian Berger, declaimed in 1817 . “How could such an age forget one for Luther?” 1 Indeed, it did not. While Friedrich Wilhelm III, the Prussian monarch, laid the cornerstone of the grand Luther monument in Wittenberg on November 1, 1817 , the second day of the three-day tercentenary celebration of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, Luther himself also left a “living monument” for the 19th century: his...

Martin Luther in the German Enlightenment  

Albrecht Beutel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 3. 102. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 33. 103. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 64–65. 104. Cf. Ibid. 105. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 69. 106. Ibid. 107. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 71. 108. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 74. 109. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 9. 110. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 76. 111. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 86. 112. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 80. 113. Cf. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 93, 104–105, and more. 114. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 100. 115. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 101. 116. Schroeckh, Martin Luther , 89...

Martin Luther in Dialectical Theology  

Alister E. McGrath

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...theological tradition, paying due respect to both the Zurich reformer Huldrych Zwingli and his later Genevan counterpart, John Calvin. 18 Yet Brunner’s works of the early 1920s show a willingness to engage a broader vision of Protestantism, including the appropriation of some core themes of the theology of Martin Luther, particularly his dialectic between “law” and “gospel,” and his notion of the “orders of creation.” 19 Brunner’s appropriation of these notions within an essentially Reformed theological framework raised some eyebrows at Zurich. At several points, Brunner...

Martin Luther’s Treatises and Essays  

Mark D. Tranvik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Berndt . The Early Luther: Stages in a Reformation Reorientation . Translated by Martin J. Lohrmann . Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014. Hobson, Theo . The Rhetorical Word: Protestant Theology and the Rhetoric of Authority . Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2002. Kaufmann, Thomas . An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation von des christlichen Standes Besserung . Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2014. Kolb, Robert . Martin Luther: Confessor of the Faith . New York: Oxford, 2009. Köpf, Ulrich . “Monastische Traditionen bei Martin Luther.” In Luther—Zwischen den Zeiten...

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...426:5–9. 51. Student notes, WA 57/I:3–232; Luther’s manuscript, WA 56:3–528; and LW 25:3–524. 52. See Gabriele Schmidt-Lauber , Luthers Vorlesung über den Römerbrief 1515/16: Ein Vergleich zwischen Luthers Manuskript und den studentischen Nachschriften. Archiv zur Weimarer Ausgabe der Werke Martin Luthers , vol. 6 (Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 1994). 53. See note 10, above. 54. WA 57/II:5–108; WA 59:371–383. Luther’s own manuscript is not extant; we only have two sets of student notes for Luther’s lectures on Galatians. 55. WA 57/II:80, 21–24...

Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy  

Simon D. Podmore

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...of Hegel’s thoughts and his discovery of Luther’s writings, which provided a more visceral framework for his identification of theology and anthropology. Feuerbach regarded his own position as ultimately “the realization of both Luther’s practical and Hegel’s theoretical revolution.” 106 A more skeptical reason for Feuerbach’s interest in Luther suggests a basis in his fear of censorship and a “strategy of survival and persuasion.” 107 As a paradigmatic hero of German Protestantism, Luther provided an apposite and unimpeachable mouthpiece for Feuerbach’s radical...

Martin Luther's Practice of Old Testament Commentary  

John A. Maxfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Biblia”: Luthers Genesisvorlesung (1535–1545) (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998), 67. 30. Neither Luther’s preface of this first volume, nor those of the editors in each of the four volumes, appeared in the American Edition of Luther’s Works . A recent annotated translation of Luther’s preface appears in John A. Maxfield , “Martin Luther as Professor of Theology and Teacher of the Bible: The Preface to His Genesis Lectures (1543),” Lutheran Theological Journal 49.2 (2015): 74–85. 31. See John A. Maxfield , “Martin Luther’s Swan Song: Luther’s Students...

Martin Luther’s Disputations  

David Luy

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...secondary studies. These include, for instance, Luther’s doctrine of the Trinity (e.g., Christine Helmer’s The Trinity and Martin Luther , Graham White’s Luther as Nominalist, Dennis Bielfeldt et al’s The Substance of the Faith and Simo Knuuttila and Risto Saarinen’s “Innertrinitarische Theologie in der Scholastik und bei Luther” 139 ), Luther’s view of the law as expressed in the antinomian disputations (e.g., Martin Brecht’sLuthers Antinomerdisputationen, ” Holger Sonntag’s Solus Decalogus est aeternus , and Philip Anderas’s “Renovatio”; with helpful background information...

Martin Luther and John Calvin  

Bruce Gordon

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Blandenier , Martin Luther & Jean Calvin: contrastes et ressemblances (St-Prex, Switzerland: Éditions Je sème, 2008); and Charles Boyer , Calvin et Luther. Accords et différences (Rome: Università gregoriana, 1973). 6. Luther’s recent biographers Hendrix and Schilling make nothing of Calvin’s perceptions of the Wittenberg reformer. The most significant work on Calvin’s relationship with Luther remains Alexandre Ganoczy , The Young Calvin (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1988). 7. On Luther’s late attacks on the Swiss, see Mark U. Edwards , Luther’s Last Battles:...

Martin Luther’s Christological Sources in the Church Fathers  

Carl Beckwith

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Manfred . “Martin Luther and the Church Fathers.” In The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West . Edited by Irena Backus , vol. 2, 571–626. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2001. Wriedt, Markus . “Luther’s Concept of History and the Formation of an Evangelical Identity.” In Protestant History and Identity in Sixteenth-Century Europe . Edited by Bruce Gordan , vol. 1, 31–45. Aldershot, U.K.: Scolar Press, 1996. Yeago, David . “The Bread of Life: Patristic Christology and Evangelical Soteriology in Martin Luther’s Sermons on John 6.” St. Vladimir’s Theological...

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