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Martin Luther’s Theological Aesthetics  

Mark Mattes

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Theological Aesthetics The Aesthetic Dimension of Faith Luther is not seen as a “go-to” theologian for aesthetics. In general, it is assumed that Protestant theology offers little for a theory of beauty or theological aesthetics because it gives prominence to the word and not the image. In a similar vein, Luther rediscovered the Pauline insight that human participation in Christ means dying and rising with him. This, clearly, is discontinuous, rather than continuous, with human life, and it removes desire from its place as that...

Martin Luther, History, and Its Meaning  

Curtis L. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Augustine to the Young Luther (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), 211. 23. Preus, From Shadow to Promise , 267–268. 24. Bayer, Martin Luther’s Theology , 48. 25. LW 8:192. Bayer cites this passage in Martin Luther’s Theology , 48. 26. Thompson, “Luther on God and History,” 133. 27. Heinrich Bornkamm , Luther’s World of Thought , trans. Martin H. Bertram (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1958), 202, 196. 28. Leonard S. Smith , “Martin Luther and the Foundations of a Lutheran Ethic,” Religion and the Rise of History: Martin Luther and the Cultural Revolution...

Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy  

Simon D. Podmore

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...horizon of humanity’s self-apotheosis. Martin Heidegger: Philosophical Theology as a Square Circle Nietzsche’s judgment on Luther instils new irony into Martin Heidegger’s ( 1889–1976 ) claim that Nietzsche’s Will-to-Power represents not the post-metaphysical philosophy he envisioned, but rather the consummation of the Western metaphysical tradition itself. According to Heidegger, Nietzsche is not the first man of a new dawn, but the last philosopher of metaphysics’ final night: metaphysics’ inevitable degeneration into nihilism. 158 Luther, by contrast, becomes...

The Gift in Martin Luther’s Theology  

Bo Kristian Holm

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...this as a clear continuation of Luther’s theology. Bayer’s work has inspired many later works on Luther and gift, although Bayer himself only touched the necessity of discussing the theological use of the gift with anthropological studies. 52 In direct connection to Luther research, Bayer developed his gift approach in Martin Luther’s Theology , identifying the only possible return gift to God in faith’s letting God be God: that is, in acknowledging God as the only giver. 53 At the Luther congress in 1983 , German Luther scholar Martin Seils marked another reference...

The Cosmological Vision of Martin Luther  

Mickey L. Mattox

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...particularly significant, for example, for understanding Luther’s ideas about music, 10 as well as his theological aesthetics more generally. It is not possible to know for certain which other works on cosmology Luther himself may have read, although the books recommended for instruction in natural philosophy at Erfurt include works of Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Sacrobosco, and many others. 11 Although there is no direct evidence Luther knew Sacrobosco’s De Sphaera , it seems likely given the work’s status for instruction in natural philosophy at Erfurt as...

Martin Luther and Modernity, Capitalism, and Liberalism  

Johannes Zachhuber

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Lotz , Ritschl and Luther: A Fresh Perspective on Albrecht Ritschl’s Theology in Light of his Luther Study (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1974). 27. Ibid. 28. Ibid. , 286. 29. Ibid. , 287. 30. Ibid. , 200–201. 31. Ibid. , 279–280. 32. Leonhard Stählin , Kant, Lotze, and Ritschl: A Critical Examination (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1889). 33. On Luther and Ritschl, cf. Zachary Purvis , “ Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology ,” in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion (Oxford University Press, 2014–). 34. Ernst Troeltsch , “Luther, der Protestantismus...

Christian Liturgical Music  

William T. Flynn

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...1988), 376. 42. Nicholas Temperley , The Music of the English Parish Church , vol. 1 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 251. 43. Martin Luther , Deudsche Messe , in Liturgies of the Western Church , ed. Bard Thompson (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980), 124. 44. Luther, Deudsche Messe , 124–125. 45. Luther, Deudsche Messe , 125. 46. Luther, Deudsche Messe , 124. 47. Luther, Deudsche Messe , 125–126. 48. The liturgical history of religious devotional song is still being written. The most complete studies concentrate on...

African Americans and Religion  

Sylvester A. Johnson

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...strategies and religious rationales of the SCLC. In response, civil rights leaders created the Progressive National Baptist Convention. This new denomination worked harmoniously with the socially committed theology espoused by ministers such as Martin Luther King Jr. (SCLC’s chief executive) and Gardner Taylor, a major defender of the civil rights movement’s Christian theology. 39 No less important for African American religions during this time was the cultural revolution birthed by the Black Consciousness Movement. As an iteration of the larger so-called negritude paradigm...

Religion in African American History  

Judith Weisenfeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
American History

...became a pacifist through his mother’s influence and later honed his commitments working with the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), an international ecumenical pacifist organization. Increasingly committed to nonviolence, Lawson served time in prison as a conscientious objector during the Korean War and later served as a Methodist missionary in India, where he studied Gandhi’s approach to nonviolent resistance. Returning to the United States to study theology, Lawson met Baptist minister and civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. ( 1929–1968 ), who encouraged...

Christian Spirituality and Social Transformation  

Philip Sheldrake

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...for ethnic minorities. In Christianity, there has been a range of examples of the prophetic type of spirituality. These include Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s radical Christian resistance to the Nazis, the preaching of Martin Luther King at the heart of the American Civil Rights movement, feminist spirituality, political theology, and the birth of what is known as “liberation spirituality” in Central and Latin America in the 1970s. This eventually took other forms in Africa and Asia. Feminist, Political, and Liberation Spiritualities The interrelated feminist, political, and...

The Idea of Black Religion  

Jamil W. Drake

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...newly appointed systematic theological professor at Union Theological Seminary, confronted the challenge of SNCC, Organization US (est. 1965 ) and the Black Panther Party for Self Defense (est. 1966 ) on theological reflection and black religion. In his Black Theology and Black Power ( 1969 ), Cone wrestled with the “burning theological question [of] how to reconcile Christianity and Black Power, Martin Luther King, Jr.’s idea of nonviolence and Malcolm X’s by any means necessary philosophy.” 67 He sought to disentangle Christian theology and the Church from white...

Public Art and Religion in America  

Kymberly Pinder

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...in Chicago and Detroit between 1967 and the 1980s. The Wall of Respect (now lost), created by Walker and members of OBAC, the Organization of Black American Culture in 1967 in Chicago’s South Side featured important African American heroes such as Martin Luther King Jr., and Cassius Clay. In the first iteration of the mural, black religious themes covered the bottom half of the mural. Photographs of black Baptists and Muslims in prayer frame painted portraits of Nat Turner, Elijah Muhammad, and Martin Luther King, Jr. The visual conflation of King and Christ...

Religious Ceremonies in American Public Life  

Joseph W. Williams

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...tribe members were joined by thousands of supporters, including fellow Native Americans from hundreds of tribes as well as religious and secular activists. The most well-known religious performances drawing attention to discrimination in U.S. society involved the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Protesters led by Martin Luther King Jr. and others often sang songs and hymns with prominent religious themes as they participated in nonviolent demonstrations for racial equality. Iconic images of the Freedom March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965 showed Reverend...

Memorialization and Religion in America  

Adam M. Ware

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...commemoration. Populism, Spontaneity, Remediation, and Mass Tragedy From Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to Ted Turner’s authorization to film the 1993 war epic Gettysburg within the confines of the eponymous memorial park and using the enthusiastic labor of individual reenactment hobbyists, the second half of the 20th century saw new, popular sanctifications of memorial spaces once defined by institutional action. Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial redefined even the institutional conception of memorial...

American Renaissance  

David S. Reynolds

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Literature

...impact of principled individualism. The first of these works pushed Emersonian individualism toward political protest; Thoreau’s act of civil disobedience against a slavery-supporting government inspired later nonviolent resisters such as Tolstoy, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr. Emersonianism also manifested itself in Walden . The self-reliance, nonconformity, and communion with nature Emerson had championed is enacted in Walden as Thoreau’s firm resistance to bourgeois conventions and capitalist materialism coupled with his aesthetic and spiritual appreciation of...

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