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Martin Luther’s Theology of Authority  

Martin J. Lohrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...on Christ’s authority in the lives of believing individuals and communities. For Christians, Christ’s lordship is identical to the command to love God above all else: Christ alone rules the hearts of believers. In Luther’s theology, this “high Christology” does not elevate Christ above human experience but rather—because he is a crucified Lord—unites Christ with the sins, suffering, and death of fallen humanity. In two works of early 1518 (the Heidelberg Disputation and the Explanations of the Ninety-Five Theses ), Luther identified a “theology of the cross”...

Portrayals of Martin Luther in Print, Stage and Film  

Derek R. Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...He was in awe of the reformer and was furious at what he viewed as Melanchthon’s later betrayals of Luther’s theology. Thus Spangenberg became the Gnesio-Lutheran biographer of Luther. In 1561 he published a short overview of Luther and his writings, highlighting the authority they carried as second only to scripture. Luther’s theology was, for Spangenberg, “David’s slingshot, Paul’s mouth, John’s finger, Peter’s key, and the Holy Spirit’s sword.” 12 Spangenberg, who served as a pastor in Mansfeld, preached two or three sermons per year about Luther, such as on his...

Martin Luther's Life, 1517-1525  

Christopher Boyd Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Brecht, Martin . Martin Luther . Translated by James L. Schaaf . 3 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985–1990. Vols. 1–2. Edwards, Mark U., Jr. Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994. Leaver, Robin . Luther’s Liturgical Music: Principles and Implications . Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007. Lohse, Bernhard . Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development . Translated by Roy A. Harrisville . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1999. McGrath, Alister E. Luther’s Theology of the Cross: Martin Luther’s Theological...

Martin Luther, History, and Its Meaning  

Curtis L. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...1958), 202, 196. 28. Leonard S. Smith , “Martin Luther and the Foundations of a Lutheran Ethic,” Religion and the Rise of History: Martin Luther and the Cultural Revolution in Germany, 1760–1810 (Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2009), 55–99. See also the presentation of this material for a general audience in Leonard S. Smith , Martin Luther’s Two Ways of Viewing Life and the Educational Foundation of a Lutheran Ethos (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2011). 29. Alister E. McGrath , Luther’s Theology of the Cross: Martin Luther’s Theological Breakthrough (Oxford: Blackwell...

Martin Luther in Dialectical Theology  

Alister E. McGrath

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...as standing within the Reformed theological tradition, paying due respect to both the Zurich reformer Huldrych Zwingli and his later Genevan counterpart, John Calvin. 18 Yet Brunner’s works of the early 1920s show a willingness to engage a broader vision of Protestantism, including the appropriation of some core themes of the theology of Martin Luther, particularly his dialectic between “law” and “gospel,” and his notion of the “orders of creation.” 19 Brunner’s appropriation of these notions within an essentially Reformed theological framework raised some eyebrows...

Martin Luther in Finland and the Baltics  

Antti Raunio

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...background of the establishment of the faculty was Voldemars Maldonis ( 1870‒1941 ). Maldonis was a Lutheran but his research oriented first to Friedrich Schleiermacher’s theology. Jouko Talonen describes Maldonis primarily as a student of Schleiermacher with a certain influence from Rudolf Otto and Adolf von Harnack as well. Also Martin Luther and Immanuel Kant were his authorities, but probably he read Luther in the way of the Cultural Protestantism. According to Talonen, he accepted Adolf Harnack’s view of the historical understanding of Christianity and of its essential...

Martin Luther in the Age of Confessionalization  

Jens Wolff

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...relations beyond Luther’s heroization and diabolization. Inner-Lutheran Conflicts and Stabilization: Interpretation of Scripture The conflicts that arose after Luther’s death were a sign that his theology could not be repeated exactly the same way as Luther had conceptualized it. In most of these cases, the participants of these five conflicts understood and felt themselves to be students of Luther: 10 The biggest crisis of Lutheran theology was the interim conflict about the revitalization of Catholic rites: Flacius was of the opinion the case of confession adiaphora...

Martin Luther’s Theology of the Lord’s Supper  

R. David Nelson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...39. Hans-Martin Barth , The Theology of Martin Luther: A Critical Assessment , trans. Linda M. Maloney (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2013), 243. 40. See the entire discussion in Barth, The Theology of Martin Luther , 243–245. 41. Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther , v–vi. 42. Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther . 43. Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther , 375. See also the whole of his discussion of this bifurcated trajectory on pp. 375–403. 44. Marc Leinhard , Luther: Witness of Jesus Christ—Stages and Themes of the Reformer’s Christology...

Martin Luther’s Sermons and Postils  

John M. Frymire

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...the Thirty Years’ War. Review of the Literature The quantity of surviving sermons relative to Luther’s entire corpus, as well as Luther’s theology of preaching (which lies at the heart of his entire theology), ensures that scholars enlist his sermons constantly in their work. This discussion limits itself to important studies on the sermons in terms of Luther’s theology of preaching, sermons in terms of genre, and, by way of example, highlights a few studies that have made exemplary uses of Luther’s sermons to explore theological or historical topics. Several recently...

Martin Luther and Systematic Theology  

Paul R. Hinlicky

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Hinlicky , “The Reception of Luther in Pietism and the Enlightenment,” in Oxford Handbook to Martin Luther , eds. Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomir Batka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 540–550. 17. James M. Stayer , Martin Luther: German Saviour; German Evangelical Theological Factions and the Interpretation of Luther, 1917–1933 (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2000). 18. On Bonhoeffer’s appropriation of Luther’s Christological doctrine in dialogue with Barth, see Michael P. DeJonge , Bonhoeffer’s Theological Formation: Berlin, Barth...

Martin Luther’s Treatises and Essays  

Mark D. Tranvik

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Eerdmans, 2004. Haemig, Mary Jane . “The Influence of the Genres of Exegetical Instruction, Preaching and Catechesis on Luther.” In The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology . Edited by Robert Kolb , Irene Dingel , and Lubomír Batka , 449–461. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Hamm, Berndt . The Early Luther: Stages in a Reformation Reorientation . Translated by Martin J. Lohrmann . Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014. Hobson, Theo . The Rhetorical Word: Protestant Theology and the Rhetoric of Authority . Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2002. Kaufmann, Thomas...

Martin Luther in the Eyes of His Roman Catholic Opponents  

Jared Wicks

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...prohibition of disputations over the extent of papal authority ( Dokumente zur Causa Lutheri , 1:301–303). To his counsellors in Halle, for the diocese of Magdeburg, who had first received Luther’s texts, he acknowledged their communication “mit zcugesanten tractat und Conclusion [theses] eins vermessen Monichs zcw Wittenburg [Luther], das heylig negotium Indulgenciarum und unsere Subcommissarien [Tetzel] betreffend” ( Dokumente zur Causa Lutheri , 1:305). On Luther’s tractat see Jared Wicks , “Martin Luther’s Treatise on Indulgences, 1517,” Theological Studies...

Martin Luther's Practice of Old Testament Commentary  

John A. Maxfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Biblia”: Luthers Genesisvorlesung (1535–1545) (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998), 67. 30. Neither Luther’s preface of this first volume, nor those of the editors in each of the four volumes, appeared in the American Edition of Luther’s Works . A recent annotated translation of Luther’s preface appears in John A. Maxfield , “Martin Luther as Professor of Theology and Teacher of the Bible: The Preface to His Genesis Lectures (1543),” Lutheran Theological Journal 49.2 (2015): 74–85. 31. See John A. Maxfield , “Martin Luther’s Swan Song: Luther’s Students...

Martin Luther’s Understanding of Earlier Reformers  

Phillip N. Haberkern

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

..., “Luther and the Late Medieval Augustinians: Another Look,” Concordia Theological Monthly 44 (1973): 245–260; and Volker Leppin , “Luther’s Transformation of Medieval Thought: Continuity and Discontinuity,” in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology , eds. L. Batka et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 115–124. 13. On these potential influences, see Erik Herrmann, “Luther’s Absorption of Medieval Biblical Interpretation,” and Volker Leppin, “Luther’s Roots in Monastic-Mystical Piety,” both in The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology...

Martin Luther’s Perspectival Eschatology  

Vítor Westhelle

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Edwards, Luther’s Last Battles . 105. Oberman, “ Teufelsdreck ,” 435–450. 106. Winfried Vogel , “The Eschatological Theology of Martin Luther, Part I: Luther’s Basic Concepts,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 24.3 (Autumn 1986): 249–264 ; and Vogel, “Eschatological Theology of Martin Luther, Part II.” 107. Modalsli, “Luther über die Letzten Dinge.” 108. The Helsinki school of Luther interpretation represents this interpretation, but it has a broader impact, e.g., in Ulrich Asendorf , “Die Einbettung der Theosis in die Theologie Martin Luthers,” in Luther und...

Martin Luther in Modern European Philosophy  

Simon D. Podmore

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...ogy of Religious Humility,” 173. 165. Martin Heidegger , “The Reply to the Third Question at the Seminar in Zurich, 1951,” in Heidegger’s Atheism: The Refusal of a Theological Voice , ed. Laurence Paul Hemming (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002), 291. 166. Heidegger, Phenomenology of Religious Life , 49. 167. Stanley, “Heidegger on Luther on Paul,” 43. 168. Stanley, “Heidegger on Luther on Paul,” 43. See also Hinlicky’s critique of Heidegger’s reading of Luther, Paths Not Taken , 65 f. 169. Stanley, “Heidegger on Luther on Paul...

Martin Luther’s Occasional Writings: Table Talk, Letters, and Prefaces  

Wolf-Friedrich Schäufele

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...a wide variety of topics. It portrays the whole reality of life at that time. Luther answers questions, provides information about persons or legal issues, gives his view on current theological or political problems, and offers advice to secular authorities and church officials. His main areas of focus are issues of pastoral and spiritual care. But Luther’s own life and personal circumstances are also frequently touched upon. This makes Luther’s correspondence an important primary source for his biography. Some Outstanding Examples One of Luther’s most important...

The Twofold Rule of God  

John R. Stumme

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Fortress, 2003. Lazareth, William H. Christians in Society: Luther, the Bible and Social Ethics . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001. Lohse, Bernhard . Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1999, 151–159. Luther, Martin . Selected Psalms II , vol. 13 of Luther’s Works . Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan . Saint Louis, MO: Concordia, 1956. Luther, Martin . “Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should be Obeyed.” In The Christian in Society , vol. 45 of Luther’s Works . Edited by Walter I. Brandt , 75–129. Philadelphia:...

Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament  

Erik H. Herrmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

... Martin Luther’s Biblical Commentary: New Testament Luther’s formal occupation was to comment on the Scriptures. For most of his life and throughout his entire academic career, Luther was a member of the University of Wittenberg’s theology faculty, a doctor in Biblia with the solemn obligation to lecture on the sacred Scriptures. It has been observed that if Luther was in a modern university, he would have been a professor of Old Testament exegesis. 1 But of course, Luther was not in a modern university, and although most of his lectures and published...

The Luther Renaissance  

Heinrich Assel

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Religion

...Germany: Mohr Siebeck,2002), vol. 5, 606–608 , focuses only on the German Luther Renaissance between 1910 and 1945; Heirich Assel , “The Use of Luther’s Thought in 19th Century and Luther Renaissance,” in The OxfordHandbook of Martin Luther’s Theology , edited by Robert Kolb et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 551–572 , locates the German Luther Renaissance in the overall perspective of German Luther reseach from Hamann and Herder in the late 18th century, via the 19th century to the Luther Renaissance. The present article also considers current international...

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