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Asmonius  

R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Asmonius Asmonius, grammarian cited by Priscian as the author of a (lost) ars dedicated to the emperor Constantius II and of a treatise on metre. The latter may survive under the name ‘ Ap(h)thonius ’. Bibliography Cf. R. Herzog and P. Schmidt , Handbuch der lateinischen Literatur der Antike (1989– ), § 525. 1....

Cassius Chaerea  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Robin Seager

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Cassius Chaerea Cassius Chaerea, a centurion in Lower Germany in 14 ce . In 41 , as a tribune in the praetorian guard, he was mocked by Gaius (1) (Caligula) for his supposed effeminacy. He played a leading part in the latter's murder ( 41 ). On Claudius ' accession he was executed. Bibliography Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft , s.v. “Cassius 37.”...

Halirrhothius, Attic hero  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Halirrhothius , Attic hero An Attic hero, son of Poseidon . He raped Aglaurus ' daughter Alcippe and was therefore killed by her father Ares, thus precipitating the latter's trial by the Areopagus court. A less well-known tradition brings him into the context of the rivalry between Athena and Poseidon : sent by Poseidon to chop down Athena's olive-trees, he accidentally lopped off his own leg and died. Bibliography E. Kearns , The Heroes of Attica, BICS Suppl. 57 (1989), 144–145....

Velitrae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Velitrae Volscian town ( see volsci ) on the southern rim of the Alban hills ( see albanus mons ) in * Latium . It frequently fought early Rome, until annexed by the latter ( 338 bce ). It still spoke Volscian then, but was soon completely Latinized. * Augustus originated from Velitrae. * Claudius made it a colonia ( see colonization, roman ). Bibliography H. Solin , R. Volpe , Velitrae , Supplementa Italica ns 2 (1983), 11–94. ETS/TWP Edward Togo Salmon / T. W. Potter...

Sosiphanes, of Syracuse, tragic poet  

Andrew Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Sosiphanes , of Syracuse , tragic poet Tragic poet credited by the Suda with 73 tragedies and seven victories. There is confusion over his dates, and there may have been two poets of this name, one active in the 4th cent. bce and one in the 3rd (the latter being included in some lists of the Pleiad ). Bibliography B. Snell , R. Kannicht , S. Radt (eds.), Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta 1 2 (1986), 261–263, 280....

Athenagoras  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Athenagoras Christian apologist from Athens and author of two extant works, The Resurrection of the Dead , and the Legatio . The latter is a defence of Christianity composed in the form of a letter to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus . This work is an extremely important, early assertion of Christian propriety against commonplace charges that Christians were atheists and cannibals ( see atheism ; cannibalism ). One of its most interesting features is the extensive use of classical literature to justify or explain Christian practice. Bibliography ...

Leucippides  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Leucippides Phoebe and Hilaeira, the daughters of Leucippus (1) , were cousins both of the Spartan Dioscuri and of the sons of the Messenian king Aphareus, Idas and Lynceus ; engaged to marry the latter, they were seized at the altar by Castor and Polydeuces ( see dioscuri ) and a violent fight (expressing the enmity between the two neighbouring regions of the Peloponnese; see peloponnesus ) ensued. See Pindar , Nem . 10 (glossing over the cause) and Theocritus 22. 137 ff. (laying it bare). See initiation . Bibliography F. Gury , Lexicon Iconographicum...

Licentius, of Thagaste  

Otto Skutsch

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Licentius , of Thagaste Licentius, of Thagaste, friend and (probably) relation of St Augustine to whom ( 395 ce ) he addressed a poem on the difficulty of understanding music and sought Augustine's guidance, asking for a copy of the latter's work De musica . The poem is preserved with St Augustine's reply (August. Ep . 26g). It hardly justifies St Augustine's description of Licentius as ‘a poet of near-perfection’, its language being unoriginal and often obscure. Bibliography Text Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 34, 89 ff. M. Zelzner , De...

Herennius Senecio  

Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...93 ce supported Pliny (2) the Younger in the prosecution of Baebius Massa, an oppressive governor of Baetica. He refused to stand for higher office under Domitian , wrote the Life of Helvidius Priscus , and was prosecuted by Mettius Carus and put to death by Domitian in the latter part of 93. His memory was attacked by M. Aquilius Regulus and celebrated by Pliny in his Letters . Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft , s.v. “Herennius 44.”...

Anniceris, philosopher of the Cyrenaic school, 4th cent. BCE  

C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...( 1 ) , and Theodorus ‘the godless’ became leaders of three divergent branches of the school, his own originality consisting, so far as we know, in stressing the importance of the pleasures of friendship ( see love and friendship ). He is said to have ransomed Plato (1) when the latter was sold into slavery on the occasion of one of his visits to Syracuse , but the authenticity of the event is doubtful. Bibliography A. Laks , in J. Brunschwig and M. C. Nussbaum (eds.), Passions and Perceptions ( Proc. of the 5th Symposium Hellenisticum ) (1993)....

Matidia Augusta, Salonia  

Anthony R. Birley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...and of C. Salonius Matidius Patruinus, a senator from Vicetia. She was much loved by Trajan, whom she accompanied on his travels, and was granted the title Augusta on her mother's death in ce 112 . Married twice, Matidia was the mother of two daughters, Matidia and Sabina , the latter being the wife of Hadrian, who showed great affection for his mother-in-law. She was deified on her death in 119 . Bibliography E. Groag , A. Stein , and others, Prosopographia Imperii Romani Saeculi I, II, III , 2nd edn. (1933– ) M 367....

Memnon, colossi of  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Memnon, colossi of Colossi of Memnon were two seated statues of Amenophis III on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes (2) below the mortuary temples and necropolis of the Memnoneia. The latter is mentioned in UPZ 174 of 150 bce . Strabo (17. 1. 46) visited the colossi with Aelius Gallus in 26 / 5 bce . One of them, damaged by earthquake, regularly emitted a sound at dawn until repaired by Septimius Severus, and attracted numerous ‘touristic’ graffiti ( see Iulia Balbilla; memnon ( 1 ) ). Bibliography A. Bataille , Les Memnoneia (1952). A. and É. Bernand...

Iunius Rusticus, Quintus  

Anthony R. Birley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Iunius Rusticus, Quintus Iunius Rusticus, Quintus, Stoic senator ( see stoicism ), son of Domitian 's victim of the same names, was consul suffect in ce 133 . A mentor of Marcus Aurelius , he was appointed city prefect when the latter became emperor and was consul for the second time (as ordinarius ) in 162 . As prefect he sentenced Justin Martyr to death c. 166 . Bibliography Marcus Aurelius , Meditations . Cassius Dio 71. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus . E. Groag , A. Stein , and others, Prosopographia Imperii...

Jovian, Roman emperor  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Jovian , Roman emperor Jovian became Roman emperor when, as the senior staff officer ( protector domesticus ) serving in the Persian campaign of Julian , he was proclaimed Augustus ( see augustus, augusta as titles ) on the latter's death in June 363 ce . To secure the army's safe return from enemy territory, he made an unfavourable peace with the Persians, surrendering the Roman lands beyond the Tigris , which had been won by Diocletian 's treaty of ce 299 , and the cities of Nisibis and Singara . He died in February 364 , aged 33, at Dadastana on the...

Tarpeian Rock  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...which murderers and traitors were thrown ( see tarpeia ). Some ancient sources (e.g. Varro , Ling. 5. 41) place it close to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; Dion. Hal. (7. 35. 4; 8. 78. 5), however, locates it at the south-east corner of the hill above the Roman Forum. The latter seems more likely, given the proximity of the Carcer and Scalae Gemoniae, which were also traditional places of execution. Bibliography T. P. Wiseman , Historia, Zeitschrift für alte Geschichte 1979, 41–45. Richardson , A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome , 377–378....

Diomedes (3), grammarian, late 4th or early 5th cent. CE  

John F. Moreland

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...1. 299–529). His work is of value because, though he rarely mentions his sources, he clearly relied upon earlier grammarians who discussed and illustrated the usages of republican authors. Parallels between his work and that of Charisius seem to indicate that he borrowed from the latter. Bibliography M. Schanz , Geschichte d. römischen Literatur , § 834. R. Kaster , Guardians of Language (1988), 270 ff....

Chimaera  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...behind, and she-goat in the middle’ ( Il. 6. 179–82); in art the eponymous central head (sometimes a protome with forefeet) which protrudes uneasily from the lion's back may be made less risible by allowing it to perform the fire-breathing which Homer and Hesiod describe. The latter ( Theog. 319 ff.) assigns it to the monstrous family of Typhon and Echidna , while Homer claims it was specially reared by ‘Amisodarus’ ( Il. 16. 328). Bibliography A. Jacquemin in Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae . M. L. Schmitt , American Journal of Archaeology...

Eurybiades  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...Eurybiades Eurybiades, presumably one of ‘the first in birth and wealth’ (Hdt. 7. 134. 2) among the Spartans, commanded the ‘Hellenic League’ fleet at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis ( 480 bce ). The chief glory for the latter went to Themistocles , with whose spirit of adventure Eurybiades may not have seen eye-to-eye, but a statue seems to have been erected in his honour at Sparta. Bibliography P. Poralla and A. S. Bradford , A Prosopography of Lacedaemonians from the Earliest Times to the Death of Alexander the Great , 2nd edn. (1985; Ger. orig...

munus  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...or rendered freely (a lover's gift, or the gifts of gods to men) or, more commonly, out of a sense of duty (burial of the dead, sacrifices, or funeral games). The latter sense leads to its use in Roman public life, for what a person owes to the state or community of which he is a citizen or in which he lives. There are personal munera , especially military service or service as a magistrate—for the latter, the word becomes common as such service, under the empire, turns into an onerous obligation—and financial munera : taxes and contributions corresponding to Greek...

Prusias (2) II Cynegus, 'the Hunter', 182–149 BCE  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary

...of Perseus (2) of Macedon, he abstained from the latter's conflict with Rome; when it was over Prusias appeared before the senate (167/6) clad in the garb of a Roman freedman and addressed his audience as ‘saviour gods’ (Polyb. 30. 18. 5). This won him favour at Rome (for a time) and contempt amongst Greeks (enduring). Invasion of Pergamene territory (156–154; see pergamum ) ended in defeat, and an indemnity was imposed by Rome. He sent his son Nicomedes (2) II to seek release from this, but the latter, learning that death would be the penalty for failure...

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