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date: 21 April 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Oliver Otis Howard (1830–1904) served as the first commissioner for the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. He founded Howard University, was President Ulysses S. Grant's “Peace Commissioner” with Native Americans, and superintendent of West Point Military Academy.

Keywords: Oliver Otis Howard, Freedmen’s Bureau, Howard University, Peace Commissioner, Native Americans, West Point Military Academy, Civil War, Andrew Johnson, Franklin Pierce

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