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Migrant Workers  

Richard Wolff and Karen Dodge

This entry discusses migrant workers in the United States and the unique circumstances and conditions they face. Included in the discussion are social problems faced by migrants with ... More

Mindfulness-Based Therapy  

Edward R. Canda and Sherry Warren

This entry provides an introduction to mindfulness as a therapeutic practice applied within social work, including in mental health and health settings. It describes and critiques ... More

Multiculturalism  

Eun-Kyoung Othelia Lee and Ruth McRoy

This entry defines the concept of multiculturalism and explains, from a historical and contemporary perspective, its evolution and significance in social work. The relationship between ... More

Multiethnic and Multiracialism  

Gina Miranda Samuels

Online publication date:
Feb 2014
Although the year 2000 marked the first time U.S. citizens were allowed to report more than one race in the Census, multiraciality and multiethnicity are certainly not new in the United ... More

Muslim Social Services  

Pamela Aneesah Nadir

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Zakat or obligatory charity is a foundation of Muslim social services. Social services with Muslims date back more than 1,400 years to the time of the Prophet Muhammad. His biography ... More

Mutual Aid Societies  

Santos H. Hernández

Mutual aid associations were established as early as colonial times in this country but gained prominence among the early immigrant populations during the 17th and 18th centuries. They ... More

Mutual Financial Aid and Saving Associations (MFASAs) among Asian Americans  

Intae Yoon

Private money clubs or mutual financial aid and saving associations (MFASAs) are commonly identified as one of the contributing factors to high small business ownership rates among ... More

Native Americans: Practice Interventions  

Miriam L. Bearse

This entry provides an overview of historical and current demographics, diversity, and cultural expressions of American Indian and Alaskan native communities in the United States. It ... More

Native Americans: Overview  

Hilary N. Weaver

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
First Nations Peoples, the original inhabitants of what is now the United States, are diverse and growing populations. There are approximately 5.2 million First Nations Peoples within the ... More

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

Noreen Mokuau

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) comprise 0.3% of the total U.S. population, with the largest groups being Native Hawaiians (401,000), Samoans (133,000), and Chamorros ... More

Oppression  

Dorothy Van Soest

If social workers are to avoid unintended collusion with pervasive oppressive systems and if they are to be successful in promoting social and economic justice, a firm grasp of the nature ... More

Oral History and Social Work  

Arlene Bowers Andrews

This article reviews basic skills for conducting and using oral histories, summarizes ethical issues, presents examples relevant to social work, and suggests useful resources. For social ... More

Out-of-School Suspension of African American Youth and Progressive Education Alternatives  

Wendy Haight and Priscilla Gibson

Racial disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions (suspensions) is a persistent, multi-level social justice and child well-being issue affecting not only youth, families, and schools ... More

Privilege  

Cheryl L. Franks and Marion Riedel

Privilege is the invisible advantage and resultant unearned benefits afforded to dominant groups of people because of a variety of sociodemographic traits. Privilege provides economic and ... More

Queer Communities (Competency and Positionality)  

Michael P. Dentato

This entry discusses the critical and ongoing need for the expansion of competency related to understanding queer identities and issues related to positionality within queer communities. ... More

Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System  

Susan A. McCarter

Social work and criminal justice have a shared history in the United States dating back to the 19th century when their combined focus was rehabilitation. But with an increase in crime, ... More

Racism  

Selena T. Rodgers

Racism is pervasive, endemic, and historically rooted in systematic assumptions inherent in superiority based on race and requires the critical attention of all social workers. The ... More

Research: Overview  

Tony Tripodi and Marina Lalayants

This entry reviews the state of social work research from the appearance of the social work research overview in the previous encyclopedia to the early 2010s. Social work research is ... More

Roma Community, Roma Minority  

Špela Urh

The prevalent discourse about Roma community mainly occurs when the media reports “Roma problems.” Homogeneity, nomadism, and assumed innate characteristics (for example, laziness, ... More

Social Exclusion and Inclusion  

Karen Lyons and Nathalie Huegler

The term social exclusion achieved widespread use in Europe from the late twentieth century. Its value as a concept that is different from poverty, with universal relevance, has since been ... More

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