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Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856–1915) was an educator and proponent of industrial education for Blacks. He was known for his accommodationist approach to race relations in the segregated South. He was head of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and founded the Negro Business League.
Forrester Blanchard Washington (1887–1963) was a social work educator. He was a strong proponent of the scientific method for professional training of social workers. He was an Urban League Fellow and director of the Atlanta University School of Social Work for 27 years.
Ann Weick was the dean of the School of Social Welfare, University of Kansas (1987–2006) and a principal developer of the underlying rationale for the strengths perspective in social work practice.
Hyman J. Weiner (1926–1980) was a program innovator, administrator, and educator. He was a pioneer in the conceptualization and implementation of group services in the health field. He also pioneered an Industrial Social Welfare Center and contributed to the building of industrial welfare curricula throughout the United States.
Sheldon R. Gelman
Celia B. Weisman (1918–2000), professor emerita at Yeshiva University’s Wurzweiler School of Social Work, was a pioneer in advocacy on behalf of the elderly both nationally and internationally.
Welfare as a right has long been an objective of advocates for social and economic justice. During the 1960s, the right to welfare was championed by legal scholars as well as the activists who created the National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). With the demise of NWRO in 1975 and the subsequent ascendance of conservatism in social policy, notably the 1996 welfare reform act, momentum for welfare as a right flagged. Since the 1990s, a capability approach to well-being has been proposed, and various instruments have been constructed to evaluate the welfare of populations across nations as well as subnational jurisdictions. Variables such as income, health, education, employment, and satisfaction measures of well-being have effectively replaced the idea of welfare as a right. The transition from welfare as a right to well-being varying across populations provides more information social workers can use to advocate for marginalized populations.
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (1862–1931) was a journalist, civil rights spokeswoman, and civic organizer. She wrote and lectured about the plight of Blacks in the South, especially lynching. She founded the Alpha Suffrage Club of Chicago, the first Black women's organization of its kind.
Eartha Mary Magdalene White (1876–1974) was a civic-minded Black businesswoman. She organized health and welfare services for the Black community in Jacksonville, Florida. She founded the Clara White Mission for the homeless and later founded the Eartha M. M. White Nursing Home.
Kathryn P. Alessandria
Research on White ethnics is lacking in the diversity literature; when included, they are used as the comparison for other ethnic groups. Diversity exists among White ethnics; consequences of ignoring these differences include culturally insensitive and inappropriate treatment, misunderstanding clients, and poor therapeutic alliances. The heterogeneity within the White ethnic population and strategies for gaining cultural information and demonstrating cross-cultural effectiveness are discussed.
Phylis J. Peterman
Michael White (1948–2008), academic, researcher, adventurer, and athlete, is known as a leading developer of narrative family therapy. Narrative family therapy focuses on empowerment, strengths, and collaboration and positions people as the experts in their own lives. The theory has application in problem solving and conflict resolution with diverse groups.
Charlotte Whitton (1896–1975) was a woman of enormous energy, personal ambition, and drive. She had essentially three careers: as a social worker who was the guiding force behind the ascendency of the Canadian Council on Child Welfare, as a journalist and campaigner on child welfare and other social service issues, and as a municipal politician who rose to be the first woman mayor of a major Canadian city.
Eric R. Kingson
Elizabeth Wickenden (1909–2001) was a social work administrator and advisor, policy writer, and advocate. In the 1950s, she launched an effective coalition of social welfare and labor organizations, known as the “Wicky Lobby.” A pioneering legal rights advocate, she advanced legal services and class action strategies on behalf of public assistance and child welfare clients.
Jean K. Quam
George Wiley (1931–1973) was a reformer, organizer, and social activist. He is credited with organizing poor people into a significant political force in the United States during the late 1960s and early 1970s. He founded the Poverty/Rights Action Center in Washington, DC.
Roy Wilkins (1901–1981) was a writer and national civil rights spokesperson. He was assistant executive secretary and executive director of the NAACP for 46 years, during which time he struggled for justice and civil rights in all aspects of American life.
Anita Rose Williams (1891–1983) was a social worker and supervisor. She was the first Black Catholic social worker in the United States and the first Black supervisor employed by a Baltimore, Maryland, agency. She co-organized District Eleven of the Baltimore Emergency Relief Commission.
John F. Longres
Ernest Frederic Witte (1904–1986) was an educator and administrator. His work in the social welfare field, particularly during World War II, was influential both in the United States and internationally. He was among the first to deal with survivors of the Nazi death camps.
Ruth Irelan Knee
Milton Wittman (1915–1994) was a social worker, writer, and leader in social work, public health, and mental health. He played a key role in the expansion of opportunities for social work education and for the involvement of social workers in the provision of mental health services.
Ruth A. Brandwein
This overview entry introduces the topic of women, beginning with general demographic information. The section on poverty and inequality, which follows, describes the gender differences and delineates some reasons why women are poor and unequal. Issues of childcare, welfare, and education are explored. Domestic violence and sexual assault are discussed, followed by a discussion of health and mental health issues affecting women. The role of women in politics is briefly explored. The entry concludes with a discussion of current trends and challenges, including implications for social justice.
Gender hierarchy is the most pervasive source of inequality in the world. In view of the commitment of social work to the goal of justice, redressing the consequences of inequality among the most disenfranchised should be at the core of professional intervention. Rather than discussing the merits of specific types of practice intervention adopted by social workers, I focus on strategies and knowledge-gathering techniques relevant to empowering women, with an emphasis on five social work methods.
Marian A. Aguilar
This entry provides an abbreviated version of the status of women's health in the United States, highlighting health care utilization, health care expenditures, policy issues, barriers to health care, and the impact on populations at risk. The findings accentuate the importance of moving the women's health care agenda forward because of the persistence of health disparities not just among women of color but among women with disabilities, adolescents, women in violent relationships, women with AIDS, women who are incarcerated, women who are homeless, older low-income women, women on welfare, and lesbian women.