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Mutual Aid Societies  

Santos H. Hernández

Mutual aid associations were established as early as colonial times in this country but gained prominence among the early immigrant populations during the 17th and 18th centuries. They ... More

Mutual Financial Aid and Saving Associations (MFASAs) among Asian Americans  

Intae Yoon

Private money clubs or mutual financial aid and saving associations (MFASAs) are commonly identified as one of the contributing factors to high small business ownership rates among ... More

Native Americans: Practice Interventions  

Miriam L. Bearse

This entry provides an overview of historical and current demographics, diversity, and cultural expressions of American Indian and Alaskan native communities in the United States. It ... More

Native Americans: Overview  

Hilary N. Weaver

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
First Nations Peoples, the original inhabitants of what is now the United States, are diverse and growing populations. There are approximately 5.2 million First Nations Peoples within the ... More

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

Noreen Mokuau

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) comprise 0.3% of the total U.S. population, with the largest groups being Native Hawaiians (401,000), Samoans (133,000), and Chamorros ... More

Oncology Social Work Research  

Julianne S. Oktay and Bradley Zebrack

Oncology social work researchers have made (and continue to make) important contributions to the knowledge base that supports the profession. This article discusses the profession of ... More

Out-of-School Suspension of African American Youth and Progressive Education Alternatives  

Wendy Haight and Priscilla Gibson

Racial disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions (suspensions) is a persistent, multi-level social justice and child well-being issue affecting not only youth, families, and schools ... More

Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence  

Larry W. Bennett and Oliver J. Williams

Perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) use coercive actions toward intimate or formerly intimate partners, including emotional abuse, stalking, threats, physical violence, or ... More

Prison Social Work  

Jason Matejkowski, Toni Johnson, and Margaret E. Severson

This entry provides a description of prison social work and the array of responsibilities that social workers in prison settings have, including intake screening and assessment, ... More

Queer Communities (Competency and Positionality)  

Michael P. Dentato

This entry discusses the critical and ongoing need for the expansion of competency related to understanding queer identities and issues related to positionality within queer communities. ... More

Response to Intervention in Schools  

Michael S. Kelly

This entry will focus on a model of intervention (the three-tier model often known as “Response to Intervention,” or RTI) that has become infused into school districts around the United ... More

Roma Community, Roma Minority  

Špela Urh

The prevalent discourse about Roma community mainly occurs when the media reports “Roma problems.” Homogeneity, nomadism, and assumed innate characteristics (for example, laziness, ... More

Runaway and Homeless Youths  

Sanna J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Aug 2013
Runaway and homeless youth may be viewed as subcategories on a continuum of familial disengagement and residential instability. Runaway youth are typically identified as those who leave or ... More

Rural Practice  

Judith A. Davenport and Joseph Davenport, III

Rural social work, whose history stretches back a century, has been revitalized since the mid-1970s. Definitions, typologies, and characteristics of rurality are provided, which serve as a ... More

Rural Social Work in Australia  

Margaret Alston

This article examines the role of social workers in rural and remote areas of Australia. The uniqueness of Australia’s landscape, its vast distances, and sparse population base, create ... More

School Climate  

Laura M. Hopson

School climate has received increasing attention from researchers and policy makers during the past two decades, as research points to its impact on student behavior and academic ... More

School Climate and School Social Work Practice  

Aidyn Iachini, Ruth Berkowitz, Hadass Moore, Ronald Pitner, Ron Avi Astor, and Rami Benbenishty

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
School climate is critical for school improvement efforts, yet questions remain regarding how best to define and measure the construct. Research demonstrates relationships between a ... More

School Social Work  

Paula Allen-Meares

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
In 2006, School social work celebrated 100 years as a vibrant profession. This entry details the genesis and development of this particular specialization to the early 21st century, ... More

School Violence  

Ron Avi Astor, Rami Benbenishty, and Joey Nuñez Estrada

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Research suggests that school violence victims may experience physical harm; psychological trauma, such as anxiety, depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, poor academic outcomes, low ... More

Self-Help Groups and Organizations  

Steven P. Segal

Self-help groups facilitate mutual assistance. They offer a vehicle for people with a common problem to gain support and recognition, obtain information on, advocate on behalf of, address ... More

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