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Social Policy: History (1950–1980)  

Mark J. Stern

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Between 1950 and 1980, the United States developed a welfare state that in many ways was comparable to those of other advanced industrial nations. Building on its New Deal roots, the ... More

Social Policy: History (1980 to Present)  

P. Nelson Reid

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
With the election of President Ronald Reagan in 1980 the United States entered an era of social policy development shaped in large measure by themes associated with political conservatism: ... More

Social Policy in Canada  

Micheal L. Shier and John R. Graham

The focus and aim of social policy in Canada have in part been determined by the unique sociohistorical and cultural context of the country. This entry provides a brief overview of the ... More

Social Services  

Philip R. Popple

Formal or institutional social services began in the United States in the late 19th century as a response to problems that were rapidly increasing as a result of modernization. These ... More

Social Welfare Expenditures  

Richard Hoefer

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Understanding both public and private welfare expenditures is necessary to appreciate the full scope of a social welfare system. This entry examines spending in four major areas of social ... More

Social Work and the United Nations  

Robin S. Mama

The profession of social work has a long and rich history of participating in and influencing the work of the United Nations and its affiliate agencies, almost since the inception of the ... More

Social Work Education: Social Welfare Policy  

Ira C. Colby

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The educational imperative to study social welfare policy has remained a constant throughout the history of social-work education. Although specific policies and social issues may change ... More

Social Work Education and Regulation in Australia  

Karen Healy

This article provides an overview and analysis of social work education and professional standards in Australia. The professional education and practice standards are set and monitored by ... More

Social Work Practice: History and Evolution  

John G. McNutt

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Social work is a profession that began its life as a call to help the poor, the destitute and the disenfranchised of a rapidly changing social order. It continues today still pursuing that ... More

Social Work Profession: Political Context  

June Gary Hopps and Tony B. Lowe

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The profession addressed a panoply of social problems that grew larger in an ever-expanding geopolitical environment, where social equity or justice was often a remedial value. Social ... More

Special Immigrant Juvenile Status  

Susan Schmidt

Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS) is an immigration classification that provides a pathway to lawful permanent residency for non-citizen immigrant children in the United States who ... More

Supplemental Security Income  

Shawn A. Cassiman and Sandy Magaña

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry provides an overview of the federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, including a discussion of who is eligible for benefits, benefit levels, and program ... More

Sustainable Development  

Dorothy N. Gamble

This entry describes how the viability of long-term human social systems is inextricably linked to human behavior, environmental resources, the health of the biosphere, and human ... More

Technology: Technology in Macro Practice  

John G. McNutt

Information technology has had a profound effect on social work practice with larger systems. These tools improve traditional practice and allow new forms of practice. This entry reviews ... More

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families  

Catherine K. Lawrence

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
In 1996, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act repealed the 60-year-old national welfare program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children and replaced it ... More

Undocumented Migrants and Detention Facilities  

Jelka Zorn

Being undocumented does not mean being without ties to one’s host society: undocumented immigrants might work and have family and friends; they might be active in community life, etc. ... More

Unemployment Insurance  

Larry Nackerud

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
In response to massive unemployment, in 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt charged members of the Committee on Economic Security to create a “cradle to grave” social-security system. The ... More

Unions  

Howard Karger

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry deals with the goals and tensions between professionalism and social work unionization. This entry addresses obstacles to the unionization of social workers, such as the mixed ... More

Vocational Services  

Lauren B. Gates

Vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, provided through a jointly funded state–federal rehabilitation system and available in each state, help people with disabilities prepare for, ... More

Voter Participation  

Frances Fox-Piven and Lorraine C. Minnite

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Scholars often refer to “American exceptionalism,” meaning that unlike other rich, capitalist democracies, the United States has never had a strong working-class political movement. One ... More

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