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Adolescents: Pregnancy  

Kathleen A. Rounds and Traci L. Wike

Although rates of adolescent pregnancy have exhibited a downward trend since 1991, the United States continues to have a significantly higher rate than other industrialized nations. ... More

Adoption: Intercountry  

Karen Smith Rotabi

The practice of intercountry adoption is considered from a historical framework, beginning with World War II to other conflicts and the global dynamics of child circulation for adoption. ... More

Adoption: Lesbian and Gay Adoptive Parents  

Abbie E. Goldberg and April Moyer

Online publication date:
Feb 2014
Adoption by lesbian and gay parents is becomingly increasingly common. This entry presents an overview of the limited research that has focused on lesbian and gay adoptive parents. ... More

African Americans: Practice Interventions  

Sharon E. Moore

African Americans number about 35 million or 12% of the U.S. population. Their life expectancy is lower than that of White Americans, and despite the educational gains made since ... More

Child Abuse and Neglect  

Susan J. Wells and Geoff Johnson

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The true extent of child abuse and neglect is unknown but reports to state agencies indicate over 3 million reports concerning maltreatment of over 6 million children are made each year. ... More

Child Care Services  

Laura Lein

Child care services, enabling parents to commit themselves to paid employment while providing a supervised environment for their children, have a long and complex history in the United ... More

Child Support  

Delanie P. Pope and Joseph Kozakiewicz

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Child support is the legal mechanism requiring parents to share in the economic support of their children. Under the law, parents are obligated to support their children regardless of ... More

Divorce  

Karen Kayser and Jessica K. M. Johnson

This entry presents the demographic trends of divorce and the social changes that have impacted the divorce rate. A cultural perspective of divorce is provided by analyzing divorce in the ... More

Early Childhood Home Visiting  

Melissa Lim Brodowski, Jacqueline Counts, and Aislinn Conrad-Hiebner

This chapter provides an overview of early-childhood home-visiting programs and offers a brief summary of the research, policy, and practice issues. The first section defines home visiting ... More

Family: Overview  

Sadye L. M. Logan

Families in almost all societies are viewed as the basic unit for coordinating personal reproduction and the redistribution of goals within the larger societal context of production and ... More

Family Estrangement  

Kylie Agllias

Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Family estrangement—a concept similar to emotional cutoff in Bowen family systems theory—is the unsatisfactory physical or emotional distancing between at least two family members. It is ... More

Family Therapy  

Cynthia Franklin and Laura M. Hopson

Family intervention has become an important tool for social work practitioners. This entry provides a brief history of family intervention and important influences as well as a synopsis of ... More

Foster Care  

Joyce E. Everett

Social work has long been involved in child foster care. Though its initial involvement de-emphasized the importance of infant–caregiver attachment, Bowlby’s theory of attachment is ... More

Grandparents  

Priscilla Gibson and Valandra

Online publication date:
Jun 2014
Little attention has been paid to the role of grandparents, yet this intergenerational family role has shifted both inside and outside of the family. Social policies have pushed it into ... More

Human Needs: Family  

Ruth Paris and Ellen R. DeVoe

In this entry we address the primary purpose of family in supporting the growth and development of individual members throughout the life course. Life cycle and attachment theories inform ... More

Human Sexuality  

Laina Y. Bay-Cheng

This entry defines sexuality and identifies dominant explanatory models. In doing so, the entry outlines the central debate regarding the relative contributions of biology and social ... More

Juvenile Justice: Juvenile and Family Courts  

Mark Ezell

This section defines and discusses the jurisdictions of the juvenile and family courts as well as their influences on social work practice. The history of the court, several ... More

Life Span: Parenting  

Daphne S. Cain and Terri Combs-Orme

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Parenting is a key part of social-work practice and research, particularly in the child welfare arena. Despite significant research and theory in other disciplines about the importance of ... More

Maternal and Child Health  

Valire Carr Copeland and Daniel Hyung Jik Lee

Social reform efforts of the settlement-house movement have provided, in part, the foundation for today’s Maternal and Child Health Bureau’s policies, programs, and services. Planning, ... More

Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents  

Cynthia Franklin and Melissa Reeder

Adolescent parenthood continues to be a public health concern despite the fact that the numbers of adolescent births have been declining over the past decade. The United States ranks ... More

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