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Ageism and Retirement  

Lynn McDonald

Retirement is a modest social institution that appeared in most industrialized nations near the start of the 20th century. The aim of retirement was to solve the societal dilemma of an ... More

Alcohol and Drug Problems: Prevention  

Flavio F. Marsiglia, David Becerra, and Jaime M. Booth

Prevention is a proactive science-based process that aims to strengthen existing protective factors and to diminish or eliminate other factors that put individuals, families, and ... More

Asian Americans: South Asians  

Brij Mohan

This entry briefly profiles the dynamic fusion, fluidity, and future of South Asians in America. While Diaspora India is emblematic of immigrant culture as a whole, South Asian duality ... More

Attachment Research, Developmental Implications, and Clinical Interventions with Children, Adults, and Couples  

Shoshana Ringel

Online publication date:
May 2015
This review summarizes contributions to attachment theory and research by John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Mary Main, and many other researchers. It addresses contributions from the Adult ... More

Bisexuality  

Laura S. Abrams

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry explores past and present social-scientific lenses concerning bisexuality. The author traces the rise of a bisexual movement in the 1970s to present times. The entry concludes ... More

Bullying in Youth  

Jonathan Singer and Karen Slovak

Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools and has been shown to disrupt the emotional and social development of both the targets and the perpetrators of bullying (Raskauskas ... More

Chaos Theory and Complexity Theory  

Keith Warren

Chaos theory and complexity theory, collectively known as nonlinear dynamics or dynamical systems theory, provide a mathematical framework for thinking about change over time. Chaos theory ... More

Client Violence  

Christina E. Newhill

Client violence and workplace safety are relevant issues for all social workers across practice settings. This entry addresses why and how social workers may be targets for a client's ... More

Cognition and Social Cognitive Theory  

Paula S. Nurius

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Social cognition refers to the ways in which people “make sense” of themselves, other people, and the world around them. Building on social psychological contributions, this entry ... More

Community Healing and Reconciliation  

Joshua Kirven and George Jacinto

Community healing and reconciliation have been a focus of many nations in response to civil war, genocide, and other conflicts. There have been increasing numbers of high-profile murders ... More

Community Violence  

Neil B. Guterman and Muhammad Haj-Yahia

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Community violence represents a widespread concern receiving increasing attention by social workers. This article considers the problem of community violence and our present understanding ... More

Conflict Resolution  

Bernard Mayer

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Conflict resolution is a core competency for social workers, and social workers have contributed greatly to this thriving field. Conflict resolution as a field of practice includes ... More

Congregational Social Work  

Gaynor Yancey and Diana R. Garland

Online publication date:
Jan 2014
The social work profession has deep roots in religious practices and organizations. Congregations have served as viable contexts for social work practice from the very beginnings of the ... More

Contexts/Settings: Corporate Settings  

David Stoesz

Human service corporations provide opportunities that social workers are just beginning to recognize. Although the commercial provision of services has negative features, expansion of the ... More

Crime and Criminal Behavior  

Margaret E. Severson

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This entry includes contemporary definitions of crime, theoretical ideas about the etiology of criminal behavior, and information about the methods used to estimate crime rates in the ... More

Domestic Violence in the LGBT Community  

Betty Jo Barrett

Since the mid 1980s, a growing body of theoretical and empirical literature has examined the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ... More

Early Brain Development for Social Work Practice  

Terri Combs-Orme

Development of the brain in the first 3 years of life is genetically programmed but occurs in response to environmental stimuli. The brain is organized “from the bottom up,” that is, from ... More

Ecological Framework  

Alex Gitterman, Carel B. Germain, and Carolyn Knight

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Ecological concepts and principles enable social workers to keep a simultaneous focus on people and their environments and their reciprocal relationships, not only in direct practice with ... More

Ecological Social Work  

Uschi Bay

Ecological social work requires a shift in thinking for social workers because it does not place humans at the center of its concerns. Rather ecological social work puts the ... More

Environment  

Fred H. Besthorn

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The earth's climatic and environmental conditions appear to be going through rapid and dramatic changes. Social work has traditionally distinguished itself by claiming a particular focus ... More

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